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RESEARCH METHODS Data Source Primary Secondary Research Design Comparative Thinking Construct Development and Evaluation Cross-Cultural Experiments Cross-Cultural Research/Measurement Issues Econometrics Equivalency Incorporating Country Variables
Levels of Analysis Longitudinal (or, Time-Series) Measurement and Scale Development Issues Qualitative/Quantitative Comparisons Sectoral Trends Statistical Process Control Status Quo Bias Survey Method The Method Intersection Method of Analysis Analysis of Variance and Covariance Bayesian Modeling Canonical Correlation Case Theoretic Approaches Cluster Analysis Conjoint Analysis Construct Validity Content Analysis Correspondence Analysis Diffusion Models (e.g., Hazard Analysis)

Discriminant Analysis Duration Models Event Study Factor Analysis Fuzzy Set Methods Hierarchical Linear Modeling (e.g., multi-level analysis, RCM, etc.) Linear Probability Models Logistic Regression Meta-Analysis Multidimensional Scaling Multilevel Analysis Multi-Model Analysis Multiple Discriminant Analysis Multiple Regression Analysis Neural Networks Non-Parametric Analysis Heterogeneity Reliability Residual Analysis Structural Equation Modeling Other Top of page THEORIES Agency Theory Borrowing Theory Chaos Theory Comparative Advantage Competitive Structure Economic Sociology

Exploration vs. Exploitation Game Theory Framing Processes Human Ecology Theory Hybridization Institutional Theory Internalization Theory International Trade Theory Internationalization Theories and Foreign Market Entry Knowledge-Based View Leadership Theories Market Knowledge Competence Market Orientation Neoinstitutional Theory Network Relations Theory Network Theory Organization Theory Organizational Ecology (Population Ecology of Organizations) Organizational Learning Path Dependence Political Economy Portfolio Theory Power-Dependence Theory Relational Contracting Theory Resource DependencyResource-Based View or Resource-Based Theory Signaling Theory Social Cognition Social Control Theory Social Exchange Theory Strategic Choice Theory Syndicates Systems Theory Technological Advantage Theory Technological Innovation Theory Theory of FDI and the MNE (Ownership-Location-Internalization) Transaction Cost Theory, Transaction Cost Economics, or Transaction Cost Analysis Upper Echelon Theory Other

Comparative Accounting Systems and Practice International Financial Reporting International Management Accounting Sarbanes-Oxley Act Taxation Tax Penalty Country or Area Studies Africa South Africa Asia China India Japan Middle East Russia Southeast Asia Australia and Oceania Central America Europe Central and Eastern Europe European Financial Markets European Union Nordic Countries North America Canada Mexico United States South America (Latin America) Latin American Financial Markets Culture Convergence of Cultures Cultural Dimensions Cultural Distance Cultural Frameworks GLOBE Hofstede Trompenaars Cultural Impact of MNEs Cultural Syndrome Cultural Values Culture Change Diaspora Divergence of Cultures Emic vs. Etic Geographic DistanceImpact of Culture on MNE Performance Management Language (Language Design, Silent Language, Translation)

Liability/Liabilities of Foreignness National Culture Role of Local Cultures Time Orientation Demographic Studies Baby Boomers Global Investor Economic and Business History Business History Globalization in Other Eras Globalization in the Communist Era Globalization Market Integrations History in International Business History of FDI and the MNE History of Thought Historic Multi-Nationals Historical Adaptation Historical Factors in MNE Operations Historical Roots of Local Conditions Spread of Firms Within Empires Economics and International Political Economy Adverse Selection Business Dynamics Business Policy Capitalism Country Risk Domestic Capital Formation Economic Development Economic Freedom Economic Geography Agglomeration Clustering Global Cities Economic Growth Economic History Economic Integration Economic Transition Environmental Shocks Evolutionary Economics Exchange Function Exports Financial Crisis Financial Impact of National Levels of Disclosure Foreign Direct Investment Policy Foreign Trade Offices GlobalizationGovernance Government Human Capital Human/Knowledge CapitalImmigration Policy Income Distribution Industrial Organization Industrial Revolution Inflation Effects Infrastructure Integrated Global Industries International Capital Structure International Political Economy International Price Index International Relations and Political Science International Trade Liberalization Liability of Foreignness

Liberalism / Neoliberalism Macroeconomics Market Imperfections Market Liberalization Market Selection Market Turmoil Microeconomic Intervention MNEs and Economic Development MNEs and Economic Growth Nonmarket Strategy Policy Transfer Policy-Oriented Studies Political Aspects of MNE Activity Political Backlash Political Behavior Political Hazards Political Risk Political Relationships Political Strategies Process Model Productivity Public Affairs Public Opinion Regulatory Risk Securing Natural Resources Security and Competitiveness Semiglobalization Sovereignty Trade Flows Education and International Business International Business Programs Entrepreneurship Comparative Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurial Effica Entrepreneurship Business Strategy Local Entrepreneurial Behaviors Local Knowledge as Entrepreneurial Driver Intrapreneurship Finance Bankruptcy / Default Bid-Ask Spread Bondholder Value Book Value Bias of Long-Term Debt Business Performance Capital Budgeting Capital Market Development

Capital Structure Credit Ratings Contingent Earnouts Cost of Capital Currency Translation Derivatives Dismissal Risk Dividend Policy Earnings Management Equity and Bond Markets Exchange Rates Exchange Risk Pricing Finance as an ?Ownership Advantage? Financial and Industrial Structure Financial Contracting Financial Management Financial Markets Financial Risk Assessment Financing Procedures Firm Exposure Foreign Exchange Management and Risk Foreign Portfolio Investment Global vs. Multinational Capital Allocation Hedging Strategies Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) Inside Ownership Institutional Domestic and Foreign Investors Insurance Intangible Assets International Asset Pricing International Cross-Listing International Financial Integration Investment Incentives Investor?s Valuation Joint Venture Sell-Off Market Value Mortgage Backed Securities Mutual Funds Private Equity and Portfolio Diversification Privatization Project Finance Profitability Return on Assets (ROA) Risk and Risk Exposure Securities Litigation Shareholder Lawsuits Shareholder Value Speculation and Arbitrage

Sovereign Bonds / Sovereign Debt Stock Market Manipulation Stock Market Valuation Stock Market Volatility Stock Prices Unconditional Asset Pricing Models Venture Capital Working Capital Human Resources and Industrial Relations Administrative Change Bargaining Behavioral Integration Board of Directors Career Progress CEO Compensation CEO Tenure Comparative HR Compensation Policies Dispute Resolution Emerging Global Labor Market Employment Expatriation / Repatriation Gender Diversity Gender Equality HR Diffusion across Countries HRM in Emerging MNEs HRM Strategies Human Resource Management (HRM) Industrial Behavior Industrial Diversification Industrial Groupings Industrial Structure Intercultural Work Relationship International Contracting Interpersonal Trust Job Satisfaction Judgment and Decision Making Labor Practices Labor/Management Issues Leader-Member Exchange Managerial Cognition Management Effectiveness Manpower Planning Mentoring Multilingual Systems Multi-Market Contact Negotiation and Bargaining Procedures Organizational Behavior Organizational Citizenship Behavior Organizational Justice Outsourcing of High-End Jobs Perception of Top Management Personnel Professional Culture Protean and Boundaryless Careers Recruiting and Training Issues Symbolic Adoption Symbolic Management Teams and Teamwork Top Management Teams Training and Development Valuation in a Global World Values Visibility Wage Negotiations Work-Family Issues Industry Studies Aerospace and Defense Alcoholic Drinks Apparel Automotive Banking and Finance Catering and Vending Chemicals Computers and Electronics Consumer Electronics Demographics and Lifestyles Domestic Appliances Energy Entertainment and Leisure Food and Beverages Health and Wellness Healthcare Household Care Household Products Housewares and Home Furnishings Industrial and Manufacturing Luxury Goods Marketing Services Metals Non-Profits Packaging Personal and Leisure Goods Personal Care Public Sector Publishing and Media Retail Services Software

Telecommunications Tobacco Toys and Games Travel and Tourism Institutions and International Business Benefits to Corporations Bureaucracies Business and Society / Business in Society Business and the Environment Business/Government Interaction and Relations Corporate Political Strategy Civil Society Expropriation Global Institutions Institutional Context Institutional Environment Institutional Trajectories Institutionalism Inter-Government Relations International Organizations Markets and Institutions MNE-Host Country Relations Multi-Party Cooperation Nationalization Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) Shaping Institutional Trajectories Trade Blocks Transparency Within and Among MNEs and National States International Business Research Agenda Evaluation of Current Empirical Approaches Evaluation of Current Theories Integration of Pre-Existing Theoretical Approaches International Business Theory New Bespoke Theoretical Directions Law Consumer Protection Distributive Justice Values Extraterritoriality Foreign Investment Laws International Property Law International Regulations Investment Appraisal Investment Guarantees and Dispute Settlements Joint Venture Contracts Justice Law of Contract Legal Enforcement Legal Origin MNEs and Imperfect Contracts Regulating MNEs Trade Law Management Best Practices Bounded Rationality Business Functions Business Systems Competitive Advantage Ambidexterity Capabilities and Capability Development Competences Firm-Specific Advantages Global Competition Location and Monopolistic Competition Location Strategy Location-Specificity Strategic Knowledge Capabilities Communities of Practice Comparative Management Context Analysis / Environmental Scanning Corporate Governance Bribery / Corruption / Fraud Corporate Political Strategies Corporate Security Corporate Social Responsibility Decision-Making Elections Firm-Self Regulation Global Stakeholders Sustainability Cross-Cultural Management Externalization Strategy Goal Incongruence Inertia Information Influence Strategies Inter-Firm Transfer International Experience Inter-Organizational Relationships Alliances and Joint Ventures Commitment Conflict and Coordination Formation and Dissolution Inter-Firm Organizations International New Venture Knowledge and Productivity Spillovers Networks Power and Dependence Relational Embeddedness Relational Management

Relational Models Relational Norms Transactional Characteristics Trust Intra-Organizational Structures Decision-Taking Structures Delegation Diversified Firms Routines Social Beliefs Social Trust Sociology of Organizations Trust Intra-Firm Politics Intra-Firm Trade Intra-Firm Transfer Issue-Selling Knowledge Management Absorptive Capacity Experiential Knowledge Exploration/Exploitation Global and Local Knowledge Institutional Knowledge Knowledge Acquisition and Sharing Knowledge ActivistsKnowledge Archetypes Knowledge Diffusion Knowledge Sourcing Knowledge Stocks and Flows Knowledge Strategies Knowledge Transfer Location-Bound Knowledge Bundles Tacit/Explicit Management Information Systems Business Performance Management Data Mining Decision Support Systems / Expert Systems Human Resource Management Systems Knowledge Management Systems Management of Technology Management of Market Risk Managing Foreign Operations Multinational Corporations (MNCs) and Enterprises (MNEs)

Cross-Border Investments Cross-Border Mergers and Acquisitions (M&As) Diversification Strategies Evolving Role of Subsidiaries and Headquarters Foreign Direct Investment Headquarters-Subsidiary Roles and Relations Knowledge Seeking Behavior Knowledge Transfer and Innovation in MNCs/MNEs Parent Subsidiary Links Regional Headquarters (HQs) Regional Strategy or Strategies Subsidiary Development, Expansion and Growth Subsidiary Networks Subsidiary Performance Subsidiary Relations Subsidiary Rent-Seeking Subsidiary Roles Subsidiary Strategies Opportunism Organizational Change Organization and Management Comparative Organizational Studies Organizational Control and Design Control and Coordination Mechanisms Hegemony and Dependence Interdependence Oligarchic Family Control Paternalism Split Control Organizational Memory/Knowledge Structures Organizational Learning Learning Advantages of Newness Strategic Learning Unlearning Organizational Structure Organizational Transformation Ownership / Control Structures Business Groups Holding Companies Family Conglomerates Performance Role of Time Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) Small-to-Medium-Sized Firms Social Issues Strategy and Business Strategy Firm Boundaries Global Learning

Global Location Portfolios Global Opportunity Recognition Global Strategy Integration and Responsiveness International Acquisitions International Corporate Expansion Internationalization Mimetic Behavior Specialized Firms Strategic Change Strategic Initiative Strategic Role of Locations Strategy Processes Stratification Transfer Pricing Transnationals Marketing and Consumer Behavior Advertising Barter / Countertrade Branding and Brand Management Business-to-Business Marketing Buyer-Seller Relationships in International Markets Channel Governance Comparative Marketing Consumer Behavior Country of Origin Effects Distribution Channels Early Adopters Emotion Export Marketing (or, Export/Import Marketing) Foreign Market Entry Global Account Management Market Segmentation Marketing Management Marketing Strategy Pricing Product Differentiation Product Positioning Promotion Relationship Marketing Retailing Sales Force Marketing Services Marketing Standardization/Adaptation Socioeconomic Studies Developed Markets / Countries / Economies Unemployment in Developed Countries Developing Markets / Countries / Economies Evolution of MNEs from Developing Countries Emerging Markets / Countries / Economies Acquiring and/or Integrating Emerging Market Firms Comparisons Across Emerging Markets Competitive Strategies of Local Emerging Market Firms Competitive Strategies of Non-Emerging Market Firms for Emerging Markets Contingent Emerging Market Deployment Convergence/Divergence Among Emerging Markets Convergence/Divergence Between Emerging Markets and Non-Emerging Markets Corporate Governance in Emerging Markets Cross-Cultural Issues in HRM in Emerging Markets Economic and/or Cultural Risks in Emerging Markets Economic Development in Emerging Markets Emerging Market Multi-Nationals Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets Foreignness and Emerging Markets General Emerging Markets Theory How Emerging Market Institutions Shape MNEs? Competitive Strategies Locational Advantage (or, Disadvantage) of Emerging Markets Marketing in Emerging Markets MNEs and Economic Growth in Emerging Markets Strategic Alliances in Emerging Markets Theoretical Usefulness of Emerging Market Category Global Environment Global Integration Human Rights Low-Income Markets (Bottom of the Pyramid) Non-Emerging Markets Regional Integration Social Alliances Speculators Sustainable Development Transitional Economies Triad Supply Chain Management and Operations Management Crossing Locales in International Operations Global Supply Chain Strategies Logistics Manufacturing Distribution MNEs and Distribution Power Offshoring Outsourcing Production/Sourcing Operations Management Supplier Management Supply Chain Integration Value Chain Technology and Innovation Creativity E-Commerce or Electronic Commerce Economics of Innovation Global Product Design and Development Innovation and R&D Innovation/Creativity Intellectual Property IT/IS Infrastructure Knowledge Creation by Global Start-ups New Product Development Networking Technologies Patents Technological Change Technology Transfer

Electronics Communications Testing Equipment Contract Electronics Manufacturing Electrical Products Electrical Products Distribution Motors, Motor Drives & Related Products Power Generation & Storage Switches, Connectors & Keypads Transformers & Power Conversion Electronic Components Display Components Electronic Component Distribution & Support Electronic Connectors Optical Switching & Transmission Components Wireless Communications Components Electronic Inspection & Monitoring Instruments Electronic Test & Measurement Instruments Scientific & Technical Instruments Semiconductor Equipment & Materials Semiconductors Analog Chips Audio Chips & Boards Communications Chips Design, Foundry & Packaging Services Discrete & Passive Components Graphics & Video Chips & Boards Logic Devices Memory Chips & Modules Microprocessors, Microcontrollers & DSPs Networking Chips Sensor Chips Energy & Utilities Alternative Energy Sources Oil & Gas Exploration & Production Oil & Gas Exploration Services Oil & Gas Field Equipment Oil & Gas Field Services Oil & Gas Well Drilling Royalty Trusts Oil & Gas Refining, Marketing & Distribution Fuel Oil Dealers Liquefied Petroleum Gas Dealers Petroleum & Petroleum Products Wholesalers Petroleum Bulk Stations & Terminals Petroleum Refining Oil & Gas Transportation & Storage Crude Petroleum Pipelines Natural Gas Gathering & Processing Systems Natural Gas Pipelines Refined Petroleum Pipelines Utility Services

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Trade Facilitation Transaction, Credit & Collections Check Guarantee Claims Filing, Administration & Processing Collections Credit Reporting Electronic Payment Systems Transaction Processing & Settlement Turnaround Specialists & Liquidators Warranties Food Candy & Confections Canned & Frozen Foods Canned & Frozen Fruits & Vegetables Dairy Products Edible Oils Fish & Seafood Products Flavorings, Spices & Other Ingredients Food Wholesale Distributors Fresh Produce Distributors Specialty Foods Distributors Foodservice Contractors Foodservice Suppliers Prepared Meals & Concessions Suppliers Fresh Prepared Foods Grains Bakery Products Milled Grains, Flours & Baking Mixes Packaged Cookies & Crackers Pastas & Cereals Meat Products Seasoning & Dressing Manufacturing Snack Foods Sugar & Sweeteners Health Care Health Care Products Medical Devices Medical Equipment & Supplies Medical Products Distribution Health Care Services Health Care Plans Home Health Care Hospitals Long-Term Care Facilities Medical Laboratories & Imaging Centers Medical Practice Management & Services Prescription Benefits Management Specialized Health Care Services Industrial Manufacturing Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Commercial & Industrial Equipment Leasin Construction, Mining & Other Heavy Equipment Manufacturing Foodservice & Food Retail Equipment Manufacturing Glass & Clay Product Manufacturing Hardware & Fastener Manufacturing Industrial Automation & Industrial Control Products Manufacturing Industrial Contract Manufacturing Industrial Machinery & Equipment Wholesalers

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Increase Sales, Develop Brands, Company, Manufacture, Manufactures, Exporters, Business, Agency, Export to, Import from, Cooperation, Looking for, searching, Reliable Suppliers, Trustworthy Exporters, How to export to Europe from India, Brazil, China, USA, Alibaba Verified Suppliers, Como importar de China, Looking for Distributors, Wiarygodni eksporterzy, Chiny, Sales Agents and Representatives, Gold supplier, Pre-shipment inspection, Export certifications, Bangladeshi exporters, export business, import, eu, europe, usa, worldwide, garment suppliers, furniture suppliers, bearings exporters, apparel companies, chinese market, indian market, eu market, auto suppliers, natural stones gse authorized, companies with GSE Authorization, export rules, checked suppliers alibaba, wooden furniture. Brazil, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Turkey, Russia, France, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Egypt, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Austria, Greece, Philippines. Transportation(1909609) Bicycle | Truck Tire | Motorcycle Tires | Other Truck Parts | Other Motorcycle Parts | Other Bicycle Parts | Other Motorcycle Accessories | Bicycle Saddle | Truck Engine | Motorcycle Body Parts | ..Increase Sales, Develop Brands, Company, Manufacture, Manufactures, Exporters, Business, Agency, Export to, Import from, Cooperation, Looking for, searching, Reliable Suppliers, Trustworthy Exporters, How to export to Europe from India, Brazil, China, USA, Alibaba Verified Suppliers, Como importar de China, Looking for Distributors, Wiarygodni eksporterzy, Chiny, Sales Agents and Representatives, Gold supplier, Pre-shipment inspection, Export certifications, Bangladeshi exporters, export business, import, eu, europe, usa, worldwide, garment suppliers, furniture suppliers, bearings exporters, apparel companies, chinese market, indian market, eu market, auto suppliers, natural stones gse authorized, companies with GSE Authorization, export rules, checked suppliers alibaba, wooden furniture. Brazil, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Turkey, Russia, France, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Egypt, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Austria, Greece, Philippines. PRE-SHIPMENT INSPECTION – PSI – HOW TO CHECK YOUR SUPPLIER FROM CHINA, INDIA, PAKISTAN, TAIWAN, BRAZIL OR MEXICO? INSPECTION CHINA Pre-shipment inspection, also called preshipment inspection or PSI, is an important and reliable quality control method for checking goods’ quality while clients buy from the suppliers.
ordering a number of articles, the buyer lets a third party control the ordered goods before they are dispatched to him. Normally an independent inspection company is assigned with the task of the PSI, as it is in the interest of the buyer that somebody not connected with the deal in any way verifies the amount and quality. This way the buyer makes sure, he gets the goods he paid for. Although increasing numbers of clients would like to collect suppliers’ information from the Internet, this contains high risks because it is not a face-to-face transaction, and Internetphishing and fraud can corrupt it. Pre-shipment inspection can greatly avoid this risk and ensure clients get quality products from suppliers.

Increase Sales, Develop Brands, Company, Manufacture, Manufactures, Exporters, Business, Agency, Export to, Import from, Cooperation, Looking for, searching, Reliable Suppliers, Trustworthy Exporters, How to export to Europe from India, Brazil, China, USA, Alibaba Verified Suppliers, Como importar de China, Looking for Distributors, Wiarygodni eksporterzy, Chiny, Sales Agents and Representatives, Gold supplier, Pre-shipment inspection, Export certifications, Bangladeshi exporters, export business, import, eu, europe, usa, worldwide, garment suppliers, furniture suppliers, bearings exporters, apparel companies, chinese market, indian market, eu market, auto suppliers, natural stones gse authorized, companies with GSE Authorization, export rules, checked suppliers alibaba, wooden furniture. Brazil, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Turkey, Russia, France, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Egypt, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Austria, Greece, Philippines. The pre-shipment inspection is normally agreed between a buyer, a supplier, and a bank, and it can be used to initiate payment for a letter of credit. A PSI can be performed at different stages Checking the total amount of goods and packing Controlling the quality and/or consistency of goods Verifying compliance with the standards of the destination country (e.g. GSE AUTHORIZATION, ASME or CE mark) The first stage is often performed by the transport company, but for the latter two stages a proper inspection company is needed. Similarly, if between the buyer and seller money transfer via a letter of credit is agreed upon, it is necessary to assign a reputable inspection company. In case of the letter of credit, after inspection of the goods, an inspection certificate is sent to the bank issuing the letter of credit and the buyer, initiating the money transfer. Inspection companies are classified in two classes: - Free-market companies: These are privately owned companies, which sell their services to the market. Danger with these might be, especially if it is a smaller company, that they might be paid as well by the manufacturer, thus working in his interest. - State owned inspection companies: Only very few companies operating on the market are state-owned or partly state-owned. The shareholding of governmental institutions guarantees the independence and objectivity. A higher form of the PSI is called expediting, in this the dates of delivery and the production are controlled as well.

Increase Sales, Develop Brands, Company, Manufacture, Manufactures, Exporters, Business, Agency, Export to, Import from, Cooperation, Looking for, searching, Reliable Suppliers, Trustworthy Exporters, How to export to Europe from India, Brazil, China, USA, Alibaba Verified Suppliers, Como importar de China, Looking for Distributors, Wiarygodni eksporterzy, Chiny, Sales Agents and Representatives, Gold supplier, Pre-shipment inspection, Export certifications, Bangladeshi exporters, export business, import, eu, europe, usa, worldwide, garment suppliers, furniture suppliers, bearings exporters, apparel companies, chinese market, indian market, eu market, auto suppliers, natural stones gse authorized, companies with GSE Authorization, export rules, checked suppliers alibaba, wooden furniture. Brazil, Germany, China, India, Mexico, Turkey, Russia, France, Sweden, Italy, Poland, Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam, Egypt, Chile, Argentina, Colombia, Canada, USA, United Kingdom, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Poland, Hungary, Ukraine, Romania, Bulgaria, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Ireland, Finland, Austria, Greece, Philippines. The most recommended for all importers is to ask the supplier to pass GSE AUTHORIZATION before sending the money to the supplier. This certification helps to avoid some problems in the export import industry. Some countries, like Botswana, require PSIs for all goods entering the country in order to fight corruption. In these cases the PSI must be performed by the company designated by the country. Posted in china inspection, como importar desde China, How to check supplier Before Shipment, how to check the supplier before shipment, how to import from china, how to import from india, importar desde china, inspection in China, Pre-Shipment Inspection, Pre-Shipment Inspection Africa, Pre-Shipment Inspection Australia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Bangladesh, Pre-Shipment Inspection Brazil, Pre-Shipment Inspection Bulgaria, Pre-Shipment Inspection Canada, Pre-Shipment Inspection Chile, Pre-Shipment Inspection China, Pre-Shipment Inspection Egypt, Pre-Shipment Inspection EU, Pre-Shipment Inspection Germany, Pre-Shipment Inspection Hong Kong, Pre-Shipment Inspection India, Pre-Shipment Inspection Indonesia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Iran, Pre-Shipment Inspection Italy, Pre-Shipment Inspection Japan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Malaysia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Mexico, Pre-Shipment Inspection Myanmar, Pre-Shipment Inspection Nepal, Pre-Shipment Inspection Pakistan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Philippines, Pre-Shipment Inspection Poland, Pre-Shipment Inspection Russia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Saudi Arabia, Pre-Shipment Inspection South Korea, Pre-Shipment Inspection Spain, Pre-Shipment Inspection Sweden, Pre-Shipment Inspection Taiwan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Thailand, Pre-Shipment Inspection Tunisia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Turkey, Pre-Shipment Inspection UAE, Pre-Shipment Inspection Vietnam, quality audit china, reliable suppliers alibaba | Tagged China inspection, como importar desde China, how to check supplier before shipment, how to import from China, how to import from India, importar desde China, inspection in China, Pre-Shipment Inspection Bangladesh, Pre-Shipment Inspection Brazil, Pre-Shipment Inspection Canada, Pre-Shipment Inspection Chile, Pre-Shipment Inspection China, Pre-Shipment Inspection Colombia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Ecuador, Pre-Shipment Inspection Greece, Pre-Shipment Inspection Hong Kong, Pre-Shipment Inspection India, Pre-Shipment Inspection Indonesia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Italy, Pre-Shipment Inspection Japan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Malaysia, Pre-Shipment Inspection Mexico, Pre-Shipment Inspection Nepal, Pre-Shipment Inspection Pakistan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Philippines, Pre-Shipment Inspection Poland, Pre-Shipment Inspection Portugal, Pre-Shipment Inspection Russia, Pre-Shipment Inspection South Korea, Pre-Shipment Inspection Spain, Pre-Shipment Inspection Taiwan, Pre-Shipment Inspection Thailand, Pre-Shipment Inspection Turkey, Reliable suppliers Alibaba | Leave a comment

Deutsch Inspektion vor Verschiffung Die Inspektion vor Verschiffung bzw. Pre-Shipment-Inspection, auch Vorverschiffungsinspektion oder Vorversandkontrolle, ist eine im Außenhandel verwendete Dienstleistung, die dem reibungslosen Warenverkehr dient. Verwendung findet die Inspektion vor Verschiffung vor allem in Verbindung mit einem Dokumenten-Akkreditiv In einer Inspektion vor Verschiffung untersucht eine unabhängige dritte Partei vor der Verladung von Waren beim Lieferanten, ob diese den Vorgaben des Käufers entsprechen. Untersucht wird dabei auf jeden Fall die Anzahl (Vollständigkeit) und die sachgerechte Verpackung. Weitergehende Untersuchungen können die Konformität mit Regelwerken des Ziellandes (z.B. CE oder Richtlinie 2006/42/EG (Maschinenrichtlinie)), Qualität, Elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit, Schadstoffe und ähnliches betreffen. Durch die Pre-shipment-inspection wird sichergestellt, dass der Käufer auch die bestellte Ware erhält. Die Inspektion vor Verschiffung wird normalerweise zwischen den Vertragsparteien vereinbart, um Streitigkeiten zu vermeiden und per Dokumenten-Akkreditiv eine Auszahlung des Kaufpreises bei Versendung zu erreichen. Durchgeführt wird die Untersuchung im Regelfall vom Frachtführer. Bei Prüfungen, die über eine reine Vollständigkeits- und Verpackungsprüfung hinausgehen, werden Warenprüfgesellschaften wie der TÜV Hessen, Bureau Veritas oder die SGS eingeschaltet. Nach Prüfung der Ware und Dokumentation der Verpackung werden die Dokumente an den Käufer und die Bank des Exporteurs übermittelt. Das Inspektionszertifikat (Certificate of Inspection) löst damit die Auszahlung des Kaufpreises aus. Siehe auch [Bearbeiten] Dokumenteninkasso Akkreditiv INCOTERMS zur Ausgestaltung von Kostenübernahme und Gefahrenübergang der Ware Expediting Literatur [Bearbeiten] Isabella Brunotte, Klaus Vorpeil: Das Dokumentenakkreditiv. Deutscher Sparkassen Verlag, Stuttgart 2007, Bestellnr. 310 470 00 Jörn Altmann (Autor), Christoph Graf von Bernstorff (Herausgeber): Zahlungssicherung im Außenhandel: Akkreditive taktisch zur Erfolgssicherung nutzen. Bundesanzeiger Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-89817-575-3. Martin-Ulrich Harbort: Pre-Shipment Inspektionen: Wichtiger Meilenstein im Aussenhandel in "Aussenhandel und Binnenmarkt", Deutscher Genossenschafts-Verlag eG, Wiesbaden 12/2009 Als Export bezeichnet man im Rahmen der volkswirtschaftlichen Gesamtrechnung (VGR) die Menge der von einer Volkswirtschaft anderen Volkswirtschaften zur Verfügung gestellten Güter. Aus Sicht der jeweils anderen Volkswirtschaft stellen diese Güterströme Importe dar. Inhaltsverzeichnis [Verbergen] 1 Einordnung in die Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung 2 Internationaler Vergleich 3 Verwandte Begrifflichkeiten 4 Siehe auch 5 Weblinks 6 Quellen Einordnung in die Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung [Bearbeiten] Der Export stellt ein Aggregat des Bruttoinlandsprodukts (BIP) in der Verwendungsrechnung der VGR dar. Er setzt sich aus dem Waren- (Handelsbilanz) und Dienstleistungsexport (Dienstleistungsbilanz) zusammen. Die Handelsbilanz und die Dienstleistungsbilanz sind Teilbilanzen der Leistungsbilanz. Zieht man von den Exporten die Importe ab, so erhält man den Außenbeitrag (auch Netto-Export genannt). Ein Außenbeitrag größer null bedeutet, dass ein Teil der Exporte in das Ausland vom Ausland nicht in Form von Importen aus dem Ausland bezahlt wird. Der Nettoexport muss also auf Kredit erfolgen, so dass einem Nettoexport ein Kapitalexport entspricht, wenn der Ausgleich nicht über eine andere Teilbilanz der Zahlungsbilanz erfolgt. Die Bundesrepublik Deutschland und Japan verzeichnen zum Beispiel regelmäßig positive Außenbeiträge, so dass die (Netto-)Forderungen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland an das Ausland laufend anwachsen. Die USA dagegen verzeichnen seit Jahrzehnten in der Regel negative Außenbeiträge, so dass die (Netto-)Verbindlichkeiten der USA gegenüber dem Ausland laufend ansteigen Internationaler Vergleich [Bearbeiten Exporte und Exportüberschüsse im Verhältnis zum BIP In der Abbildung sind für die Triadenländer, also die drei größten Volkswirtschaften der Welt, die Exporte im Verhältnis zum jeweiligen BIP dargestellt, außerdem der Nettoexport im Verhältnis zum BIP. Steigende Exportquoten deuten auf eine zunehmend arbeitsteilige Weltwirtschaft hin, die Handelsverflechtung der Welt nimmt zu (Globalisierung). Insbesondere in Deutschland wird unter den Schlagworten Exportweltmeister und Basarökonomie eine intensive Debatte um die Bedeutung der deutschen Exportzuwächse geführt. Verwandte Begrifflichkeiten [Bearbeiten] Ein Exportland ist eine Volkswirtschaft, die zu einem bedeutenden Teil für den Export produziert. Als Weltexport bezeichnet man den Wert aller weltweit von Volkswirtschaften exportierten Güter. Da jeder Export des einen Landes einem Import eines anderen Landes entspricht, muss der Weltexport definitorisch gleich dem „Weltimport“ sein. Aufgrund von statistischen Fehlern aber auch bedingt durch die angewendeten Methoden gleichen sich aber Weltexport und Weltimport nicht genau aus.[1] Siehe auch [Bearbeiten] Exportorientierung Außenhandelsstatistik GATT GATS Welthandel/Tabellen und Grafiken Weblinks [Bearbeiten] Außenwirtschaftsportal Bayern Umfangreiche Informationen zu Export und Außenwirtschaft Wichtige VGR-Zusammenhänge vom StBA erklärt Deutsche Bundesbank: Monatliche Zahlungsbilanzstatistiken von Januar 2000 bis heute. Statistische Beihefte zum Monatsbericht 3 Ausfuhren und Einfuhren nach Waren und Dienstleistungen nach Ländern und Gebieten iXPOS Seit 2001 das gemeinsame Außenwirtschaftsportal der deutschen Ministerien, Bundesländer und Spitzenverbände Grafi : Anteile am Weltwarenexport, aus: Zahlen und Fakten: Globalisierung, Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung/bpb Quellen [Bearbeiten] ^ Albrecht Krockow und Alexander Loschky: Ursachen für Asymmetrien in den Außenhandelsstatistiken, Statistisches Bundesamt, 2005. Kategorien: Internationaler Handel | Außenwirtschaft | Volkswirtschaftliche Gesamtrechnung Das Expediting ist ein Anglizismus für Qualitäts- und Terminkontrollmaßnahmen im Rahmen des technischen Einkaufs. Die direkte Übersetzung "Beschleunigen" trifft allerdings den Tätigkeitsbereich nicht, eher geht es darum, Verzögerungen zu vermeiden. Das Expediting umfasst die Außenaktivitäten eines Unternehmens, um den in Bestellung befindlichen Auftragsbestand bei anderen Zulieferern zu überprüfen. Überprüft werden Objekte unter qualitativen und terminlichen Aspekten, die eine lange Durchlaufzeit zu ihrer Fertigung benötigen. Beispiel: Ein Anlagenbauer hat den Auftrag eines Kunden im Nahen Osten zur Errichtung einer Erdöl-Raffinierie. In dieser Raffinerie werden Hochdruck-Pumpen eingesetzt. Diese Pumpen beschreibt zwar der Anlagenbauer, stellt sie jedoch nicht selbst her. Zuerst erarbeitet er die Spezifikation der Pumpen, dann holt er bei verschiedenen, geeigneten Pumpenherstellern Angebote ein und wird in aller Regel beim summa günstigst erscheinenden Angebot eine Bestellung erteilen. Nun wird der Zulieferer (auch Unterlieferant genannt) an dieser Bestellung beginnen zu arbeiten. Wenn die Pumpe zu ihrer Fertigung eine lange Zeit benötigt, so ist der Anlagenbauer gut beraten, wenn er sich immer mal zwischendurch nach dem Fortgang seiner Bestellung erkundigt. Expediting nun meint nicht nur im allgemeinen Sinne das Erkundigen (oftmals tel. oder per Mail), im engeren Sinne meint Expediting „zu Fuß aus dem Unternehmen heraus gehen“ (lateinisch ex = heraus, pedes=Füße), um sich beim Unterlieferanten die Objekte, in diesem Fall seine bestellten Pumpen in den verschiedenen Fortschritts-Stadien in realita zu betrachten: ob sie zum Ziel- / bestellten Termin pünktlich fertiggestellt sein werden, ob sie in der qualitativen Ausführung der Spezifikation entsprechen werden (Zwischen-Abnahme / Endabnahme). Diese terminlichen und qualitativen Aspekte können von einer Person überprüft werden, es kann aber auch hierzu Aufgabenteilung bestehen: dass eine Person NUR den Qualitätsaspekt prüft und dass ein Kollege von ihm die terminlichen Belange im Auge behält. Unterschieden wird daher auch in das qualitative und das quantitative Expediting. Das Quantitative umfasst lediglich Termin-, Vollzähligkeits- und Verpackungskontrolle, im qualitativen Expediting wird zusätzlich die Beschaffenheit der Güter überprüft. Hier kann auch eine Konformitätsüberprüfung stattfinden, ob die gelieferten Güter beispielsweise der Druckgeräterichtlinie oder anderen Normen entsprechen, ob eine elektromagnetische Verträglichkeit gegeben ist oder ähnliches. Expediting ist also eine Form des Qualitätsmanagement, die in der Regel beim Lieferanten stattfindet. Durchgeführt wird sie von internen Kontrolleuren oder externen Prüfer. Bei den externen unterscheidet man zwischen den einfachen Ingenieurbüros oder den „Trusted Third Parties“ wie dem TÜV Hessen. Im Falle der Einschaltung einer Trusted Third Party kann mit dem Projektfinanzierer abgesprochen werden, dass die Überweisung eines Teilbetrages dann erfolgt, wenn die Pumpe vom TÜV abgenommen wurde und das TÜV-Siegel auf der Verpackung angebracht wurde. Den Stellenwert des Expediting, der auf den ersten Blick nicht unbedingt ersichtlich ist, verdeutlicht eine Stellungnahme des Vorstandsvorsitzenden der RWE Power AG. In der Fachzeitschrift "Energie & Management"[1] vom 1. September 2009 stellt Dr. Johannes F. Lambertz eine Untersuchung von 20 Kraftwerksbaustellen des Konzerns in Europa vor. Festgestellt wurde in der breit angelegten Untersuchung, dass beim Bau von Kraftwerken Verzögerungen von 12 Monaten und mehr mittlerweile nicht mehr die Ausnahme, sondern die Regel sind. Zurückgeführt werden diese Verzögerungen auf Qualitäts- und Terminprobleme bei den Subunternehmern und auf fehlende Überwachung der Subunternehmer durch die eigentlichen Lieferanten. Das frühzeitige Erkennen und die Beseitigung der Qualitäts- und Terminprobleme bei Subunternehmern ist die typische Aufgabe eines Expediters. Quellen [Bearbeiten] Definition Expediting. Abgerufen am 6. August 2009. Materials Providing and Expediting Management – Fehlteil oder Schwarzer Peter?. Abgerufen am 6. August 2009. Expediting: Trusted Third Parties prüfen vor Ort aus "Beschaffung aktuell". Abgerufen am 30. November 2009. Einzelnachweis [Bearbeiten] ^ Energie & Management, Ausgabe 17/09 vom 1. September 2009, S.10 "Neubaubarometer steht auf "Hold""(Herrsching, 2009) Siehe auch [Bearbeiten] Pre-shipment-inspection Akkreditiv Beschaffung Supply-Chain-Management Kategorie: Projektmanagement Eksport Eksport - (ingilisc?: export) - iqtisadiyyatda m?hsulun ölk?nin s?rh?ddind?n k?nara gönd?rilm?si, xarici bazarda satiºi üçün n?z?rd? tutulmasi. Vývoz Export (nebo Vývoz) je objem zboží, služeb (technologií, licencí, autorských práv), který urèitý stát je schopen vyrobit a vyvézt do zahranièí. Pro každou zemi je vývoz pøínosem; je-li hodnota exportu vyšší než hodnota dovozu, rozdíl tvoøí pøírùstek hrubého domácího produktu. Velká èást dnes bohatých zemí své jmìní získala právì díky exportu svých výrobkù do zahranièí (napøíklad Japonsko, USA). [editovat]Èistý vývoz Èistý vývoz (X nebo NX) je rozdíl mezi exportem a importem daného státu: NX=Ex-Im, kde Ex je export, Im je import (obojí vyjádøené v urèité mìnì, napø. Kè) V pøípadì, že jeho hodnota je kladná, pak vývoz pøevyšuje dovoz a hodonota NX udává, o kolik (penìžních jednotek). V opaèném pøípadì dovoz pøevyšuje vývoz. Používá se k výpoètu Hrubého domácího produktu metodou výdajovou. Tento ekonomický èlánek je pøíliš struèný nebo neobsahuje dùležité informace. Pomozte Wikipedii tím, že jej vhodnì rozšíøíte. Bližší informace mohou být uvedeny na diskusní stránce. Exportación Para otros usos de este término, véase Exportación (informática). En economía, una exportación es cualquier bien o servicio enviado a otra parte del mundo, con propósitos comerciales. La exportación es el tráfico legítimo de bienes y/o servicios nacionales de un país pretendidos para su uso o consumo en el extranjero. Las exportaciones pueden ser cualquier producto enviado fuera de la frontera de un Estado. Las exportaciones son generalmente llevadas a cabo bajo condiciones específicas. La complejidad de las diversas legislaciones y las condiciones especiales de estas operaciones pueden dar lugar, además, a toda una serie de fenómenos fiscales.1 Contenido [ocultar] 1 Exportaciones y balanza comercial 2 Véase también 3 Referencias 3.1 Enlaces externos [editar]Exportaciones y balanza comercial La balanza comercial se define como el valor monetario de los bienes exportados menos los bienes importados, y por tanto se considera positiva cuando las exportaciones superan a las importaciones, y negativa cuando se importa más de los que se exporta. Existe una relación estrecha entre el ahorro nacional, la inversión nacional y la balanza comercial. Teniendo en cuenta los componentes agregados del PIB: Donde PIBpm es el producto interior bruto contabilizado en precios de mercado, C es valor total del los bienes consumidos, I la formación bruta de capital (inversión),G el gasto de gobierno o consumo público, X el valor de las exportaciones y M el valor de las importaciones. A partir de la identidad anterior es trivial derivar la identidad fundamental de la contabilidad nacional: [editar]Véase también Anexo:Lista de países por exportaciones Promoción de exportaciones Comercio internacional Importación Expansión empresarial Balanza de pagos APEC Fundación Exportar ICEX PIB [editar]Referencias ^ Tramas fiscales en operaciones de exportación [editar]Enlaces externos Información general Portal de comercio al por mayor en América Latina (www.mercatrade.com): El Directorio global de empresas que hacen negocios con y en América Latina y el Caribe. Le proveemos todo lo que usted necesita para promover sus productos y ampliar su negocio en una de las regiones más dinámicas del mundo. Centro para la Internacionalización de las (PyMEs): Portal de Información para Pequenas y Medianas Empresas (PyMEs) que tengan como objetivo desarrollar su negocio de exportación. Cuenta con Estudios de mercado, Foros, noticias, Oportunidades Comerciales, enlaces de interés, etc,. Instituto Espanol de Comercio Exterior (ICEX): Organismo público adscrito a la Secretaría de Estado de Comercio Exterior del Ministerio de Industria, Turismo y Comercio, que tiene como misión promover la internacionalización de las empresas espanolas. ByGalicia: La plataforma digital de la internacionalización (Galicia): Plataforma digital creada por la Consellería de Innovación e Industria de la Xunta de Galicia. Ofrece información especializada y actualizada diariamente en cuatro idiomas (galego, castellano, inglés y japonés). Cuenta, previo registro, con números servicios gratuitos como asesoramiento de expertos, foros especializados, selección de recursos, publicación de currículums, escaparate de productos, espacio web para las empresas, difusión de información especializada... Zeiky:: Zeiky es el Centro de Información y Asesoría en Comercio Exterior, creado mediante un convenio de cooperación interinstitucional entre PROEXPORT- Colombia, el Ministerio de Comercio, Industria y Turismo y BANCÓLDEX, tiene la finalidad de apoyar la generación de la cultura exportadora y promover la oferta exportable de Colombia Grupo Raser:: Conjunto de empresas asentadas en Espana, Nigeria y Portugal cuya principal dedicación es la exportación y la importación de diferentes productos a los mercados de los mismos. Categorías: Términos de comercio | Comercio internacional | Aduanas Exportation Aller a : Navigation, rechercher Cet article est une ébauche concernant l’économie et le commerce. Vous pouvez partager vos connaissances en l’améliorant (comment ?) selon les recommandations des projets correspondants. L'exportation est l'action de vendre a l'étranger une partie de la production de biens ou de services d'un ensemble économique, pays ou région. C'est un terme miroir de celui d'importation, étant donné qu'une vente du pays A au pays B est la meme opération qu'un achat du pays B au pays A. Sommaire [masquer] 1 Importance économique 2 Propositions pour mieux exporter 3 Voir aussi 3.1 Articles connexes Importance économique[modifier] Les dix principaux pays pour le commerce international Cette activité économique et commerciale est considérée comme tres importante. C'est en particulier un moyen crucial pour acquérir des devises, lesquelles sont pour un pays des moyens d'intervention économique et financiere sur les marchés extérieurs (par exemple pour s'équiper ou pour obtenir des produits de base). Par ailleurs, les exportations permettent de stimuler une économie en valorisant le travail d'un pays aupres des autres et en assurant la pérennité de ses entreprises qui, dans le cadre de la mondialisation, est fortement liée a leurs positions sur le marché mondial (part de marché au niveau mondial). Propositions pour mieux exporter[modifier] Ces séries de propositions sont du domaine des États, elles résultent de l'expérience de professionnels de l'exportation. Sociétés de commerce international : Favoriser le développement des sociétés de commerce international, tout d'abord en reconnaissant leur rôle éminent. Favoriser des partenariats entre différents groupes industriels et financiers pour favoriser la création de groupes de commerce puissants et efficaces. Négociations internationales : Utiliser le réseau des postes d'expansion économique. Limiter dans les négociations internationales les contre-achats et les compensations surtout avec les pays avec lesquels existe une balance commerciale déficitaire. Limiter les importations de masse des matieres premieres (pétrole, charbon, minerais, pâte a papier, etc.) en développant le recyclage. Favoriser le développement, dans le cadre des contrats annexes, d'exportation d'innovation, de gestion, des services et de main-d'ouvre, sous forme d'assistance technique, de maintenance d'installations, de transfert de technologies et d'apprentissage. Recherche et traitement de l'information : Structurer le réseau des postes d'expansion économique, en l'intégrant dans les réseaux d'entreprise. Créer et doter de moyens importants les organismes para-publics (type COFACE) pour la recherche d'informations sur les structures financieres des concurrents étrangers : leur surface financiere et leurs soutiens, leurs mécanismes de financement et d'assurance crédit. Création d'une base de données commerciale accessible aux entreprises exportatrices. Structurer le partage des informations collectées par les réseaux d'entreprise, a la suite de salons professionnels par exemple, Organiser des voyages groupés pour plusieurs entreprises a l'étranger Aider a l'implantation des compagnies d'assurances et des sociétés financieres nationales dans un maximum de pays, afin qu'elles puissent etre des supports efficaces aux exportateurs nationaux et leur apporter les meilleures informations et les meilleurs services. Formation : Favoriser le développement des compétences pratiques, concretes et industrielles des commerciaux et conseillers en poste a l'étranger, en s'appuyant sur les postes d'expansion économique Favoriser la formation aux langues étrangeres, aux techniques et a la culture stratégique et d'exportation des cadres d'entreprise. Créer des formations de haut niveau pour former des spécialistes a l'exportation. Développer les postes d'informations économiques aupres des ambassades et consulats a l'étranger, favoriser l'envoi dans ces postes de jeunes en formation de haut niveau, comme assistants, dans le cadre de stages de qualification ou de fin d'études. Finances et assurances : Créer et développer des procédure de garantie, contre les risques pris a l'exportation, par des organismes para-publics (type COFACE), pour les pays ou les banques et assurances refuseraient leur concours a cause des risques résiduels. Autoriser la garantie de change a des monnaies non-éligibles et des le stade de l'offre. Assouplir les garanties aux crédits financiers. Assouplir les limitations concernant la part étrangere et les commissions. Permettre l'alignement des taux des financements en devises sur les taux pratiqués par le pays de la devise. Multiplier les protocoles gouvernementaux a financements privilégiés pour les pays en voie de développement. Développer les marchés a terme et les marchés d'options. Devises : Assouplir le statut des antennes commerciales et les autoriser a encaisser des recettes locales pour payer leurs propres charges. Favoriser leur transformation en bureaux de liaison et leur permettre de travailler en devises locales. Permettre la déductibilité fiscale pour les transferts de fonds liés aux dépenses de fonctionnement des filiales. Implantations : Favoriser le développement des représentations ou des implantations groupées d'entreprises a l'étranger. Favoriser le développement des techniques du portage. Favoriser le choix d'expatriation des cadres en leur assurant des avantages, au niveau fiscal, de constitution de la retraite et des charges sociales, durant leur séjour a l'étranger. Favoriser le développement des coentreprises avec les industriels locaux. Favoriser le développement des sociétés de leasing a l'étranger pour faciliter les financement des achats de matériels d'équipement. Image de marque du pays : Développer l'accueil et les offres de scolarité généreuses aux jeunes étrangers venant étudier. Développer l'accueil et les offres de postes d'assistants dans les universités et les grandes écoles pour les jeunes étrangers. Favoriser l'accueil et des offres de stages dans les entreprises nationales pour les jeunes étrangers. Favoriser l'accueil des étrangers dans le cadre de leurs venues pour des missions commerciales et techniques, pour participer aux foires et aux colloques. Favoriser les développement des missions envoyées, les participations aux foires et colloques a l'étranger. Fiscalité : Suppression de la part des frais généraux liés a l'exportation dans la base de calcul des taxes et impôts sur les sociétés, ou transformation du montant a payer en crédit d'impôt. Réduction de l'impôt sur les bénéfices sur la part du chiffre d'affaires a l'exportation. Réglementation : Assouplir le lois sur le travail quand il s'agit d'un travail pour l'exportation. Assouplir, simplifier et accélerer les procédures administratives liées a l'exportation. Infrastrutures : Création de ports francs. Amélioration du réseau routier et ferroviaire, et des dessertes portuaires et aéroportuaires. Voir aussi[modifier] Articles connexes[modifier] Liste des pays par volume d'exportation Mission économique Assurance export Balance commerciale Commerce international Compétitivité Chambre de commerce et d'industrie française du Japon Lettre d'information : La Lettre Mensuelle - affaires au Japon Bienvenue sur le portail traitant de l'économie. Ce portail n'a pas pour vocation de lister les entreprises ou les organismes liés a l'économie. Il est consacré aux concepts généraux liés a l'économie et plus particulierement a la science économique. L'économie est la science de l'administration du patrimoine de la maison ou de l'entreprise ou plus généralement science de l'administration du patrimoine de la collectivité qui peut etre la cité ou la nation. L'économie a aussi le sens large de systeme ou de réduction des couts. modifier Vue d'ensemble Introduction : Qu'est-ce que l'économie · la finance · la gestion ? Glossaire : Liste des articles d'économie · de finance Catégories : Plusieurs catégories sont a votre disposition pour découvrir les articles du portail : initiation : économie · histoire économique · branches de l'économie · économies par pays · économies par région · Indicateurs économiques avancée : théories et modeles · publications (livres, articles, revues) · microéconomie · macroéconomie · économie internationale · économie politique · finance · économétrie découvrir les personnalités ou les organismes : économistes · courants de pensées · entreprises · organisations internationales · banques divers : commerce · management · comptabilité · droit des affaires · autres... modifier Lumiere sur… Adam Smith (5 juin 1723 - 17 juillet 1790) est un philosophe et économiste écossais des Lumieres. Il reste dans l’histoire comme le pere de la science économique moderne, et son ouvre principale, la Richesse des nations, est un des textes fondateurs du libéralisme économique. Professeur de philosophie morale a l’université de Glasgow, il consacre dix années de sa vie a ce texte qui inspire les grands économistes suivants, ceux que Karl Marx appellera les « classiques » et qui poseront les grands principes du libéralisme économique. Si nombre d’économistes admirant Smith, le considérent comme : « le pere de l’économie politique », c’est peut-etre parce que nombre de courants peuvent y voir le pere de leurs idées. Les libéraux le saluent comme celui qui a mis en lumiere l’importance du marché comme mode de régulation automatique de la société, ceux recommandant une intervention modérée de l’État peuvent pourtant rappeler que Smith en a aussi souligné les imperfections éventuelles et a appelé la puissance publique a les corriger. Bien qu’a l’opposé des idées politiques de Smith, Karl Marx lui-meme s’en inspire en développant toute une doctrine fondée sur la théorie classique de la valeur. Lire la suite Autres articles sélectionnés au sein du portail Économie modifier Faits marquants de l'actualité 23 mai 2011 : L'économiste Xavier Gabaix reçoit le Prix du meilleur jeune économiste de France. avril 2011 : La prestigieuse American Economic Association vient de décerner la John Bates Clark Medal a Jonathan Levin. 9 février 2011 : Fusion entre la Bourse de Toronto et la Bourse de Londres. 26 septembre 2010 : Désireux de relancer les exportations des États-Unis, la Fed incite les investisseurs a anticiper une chute de la valeur du dollar pour soutenir une reprise vacillante. La conséquence logique d'une bataille entre les États-Unis, le Japon et bien sur la Chine : l'euro a repris les 10% de sa valeur (par rapport au dollar) perdus entre mai et juin 2010. 7 mai 2010 : L'euro a perdu plus de 10% de sa valeur (par rapport au dollar) au moment ou l'Europe et le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) s'engagent formellement a preter 110 milliards d'euros pour lutter contre la crise grecque. 28 avril 2010 : Angus Maddison, économiste-historien est mort. 26 avril 2010 : La prestigieuse American Economic Association vient de décerner, pour la premiere fois, a une non américaine, Esther Duflo la John Bates Clark Medal. 20 avril 2010: Économie de l'environnement : Les autorités européennes entendent profiter de la crise du nuage de cendres du volcan islandais Eyjafjöll pour centraliser davantage la gestion du trafic européen. L'idée d'un "ciel unique" a été lancée, en 1999, pour s'adapter au développement du trafic aérien. 10 mars 2010: Concurrence : Airbus, filiale d'EADS, risque d'etre contraint de renoncer a participer a un appel d'offres pour un méga-contrat d'avions ravitailleurs pour l'armée de l'air américaine apres le retrait lundi de son allié américain Northrop Grumman. Les deux groupes estiment que l'appel d'offres favorise leur concurrent américain Boeing, désormais seul en course. 23 février 2010: Le déficit public a représenté 5 % du produit intérieur brut (PIB) en 2009 en Italie, un chiffre sans commune mesure avec les 13 % observés en Grece, ni avec les pourcentages a deux chiffres affichés par l'Irlande, le Portugal et l'Espagne. 12 janvier 2010: France : greve a la raffinerie des Flandres suite au projet de fermeture annoncé par Total, qui perdure tout le mois. 19 janvier 2010: Kraft Foods achete Cadbury pour 11,9 milliards de livres sterling. 22 janvier 2010: France: Ordonnance créant l'Autorité de contrôle prudentiel (ACP) par fusion de la Commission bancaire et de l'Autorité de contrôle des assurances et des mutuelles (ACAM). 13 décembre 2009: Paul Samuelson, Prix Nobel 1970, l'un des économistes le plus influent a quitté le monde des vivants. 2011 en économie... ...Toute l'actualité économique modifier Sélection d'article Articles de qualité Adam Smith - Avantage comparatif - Compagnie néerlandaise des Indes orientales - Économie - Économie de l'Australie - Économie du Botswana - Économie de la Côte d'Ivoire - Économie des Iroquois - Économie du Nigeria - Économie de la Tunisie - Histoire de la soie - John Maynard Keynes - Mercantilisme - New Deal - Panique bancaire américaine de 1907 - Recherche sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations - Réformes prussiennes - William Petty Bons articles Assurance automobile en France - Corn Laws - Crise de la vache folle - Dette publique de la France - Économie de la culture - Économie de la République démocratique du Congo - Économie des musées - Effets du commerce international sur l'environnement - Énergie en Suisse - Guerre du papier - Histoire de l'horlogerie a Besançon - Histoire du capitalisme - Historique du logement social en France - Histoire de la pensée économique des arts et de la culture - Meule a grains - Milton Friedman - Payola - Pret a la grosse aventure - Récupération informelle des déchets - Robert Louis-Dreyfus - Théoreme du minimax de von Neumann - Titrisation - Travail des enfants - Tulipomanie modifier Les principaux articles Histoire économique Branches de l'économie Économie par pays et zone Révolution industrielle Histoire du capitalisme Krach de 1929 Accords de Bretton Woods Plan Marshall Trente glorieuses Union européenne Mondialisation économique Économie du savoir Chronologie des faits économiques Histoire de la pensée économique Histoire économique de la France etc. Macroéconomie Microéconomie Économie politique Économie internationale Économétrie Économie du travail Économie publique Économie du développement Économie sociale et solidaire Économie de l'environnement Méthodologie économique Économie des organisations Économie de la culture Économie géographique etc. Économie de la France Économie des États-Unis Économie de l'Europe Économie de la Tunisie Économie de l'Union européenne Économie de l'Australie Économie de la Suisse Économie du Japon Économie de la Chine Économie du Canada Économie de l'Afrique Économie de l'Inde etc. Économistes Économie internationale Développement économique Économiste Histoire de la pensée économique Célebres économistes « Prix Nobel » d'économie Adam Smith ~ Thomas Malthus ~ Jean-Baptiste Say ~ David Ricardo ~ Karl Marx ~ Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk ~ Alfred Marshall ~ John Maynard Keynes ~ Paul Samuelson ~ Friedrich Von Hayek ~ Milton Friedman ~ Marion King Hubbert ~ Thorstein Veblen ~ Howard Scott Théorie du commerce international Avantage comparatif Balance commerciale Clause de la nation la plus favorisée Libre-échange GATT, OMC, OPEP zone de libre échange Taux de change Investissement direct a l'étranger Économie du développement Pays en développement Freins du développement Banque mondiale, FMI, OCDE Microcrédit, Tontine, Pauvreté Arthur Lewis, Amartya Sen Développement durable Commerce équitable Commerce Solidaire Économie de l'environnement Principe de précaution Principe pollueur-payeur La vente & le commerce Il y a actuellement 973 articles liés au commerce sur Wikipédia. Le commerce est un sous portail du portail économie. Ce portail ne liste pas les entreprises du portail entreprise. Qu’est-ce que le commerce ? Le commerce est l'activité principale d'échange des biens et des services. Il couvre l'ensemble des transactions entre individus, entre organisations ou entre individus et organisations, que sont les associations ou les entreprises. Il complete l'activité de production en permettant de rémunérer la fourniture d'un bien ou d'un service, principalement par le recours a la monnaie. Par extension, le terme est utilisé en français pour désigner le lieu ou l'organisation ou s'exerce cette activité tel qu'un magasin. L commerce a pour moteur la satisfaction des multiples besoins de l'homme. Les connaissances, la force physique et le temps dont il dispose ne lui permettent pas de produire seul tout ce dont il a besoin pour vivre. La solution consiste pour lui a organiser et diviser le travail. L'homme décide alors d'une part de produire ce qu'il peut et d'autre part d'échanger ce qu'il produit contre ce dont il a besoin et qu'il ne produit pas lui-meme. L'écharge de marchandises entre deux parties en exigent leur transport. Les Techniques de vente,… Le transport des marchandises se fait par voie maritime, par voie terrestre et par voie aérienne. Chacun de ces modes présentent des avantages et des limites en termes de délai, de cout et de risque. Le stockage avant l'expédition et ensuite avant la distribution des marchandises complete le transport dans le cadre de l'ensemble des opérations de logistique. L'assurance, quant a elle, offre des solutions financieres de protection de la marchandise pendant ces opérations d'acheminement ou les risques de détérioration accidentelle, de perte ou de vol existent. Une vieille acception du mot commerce renvoie aux notions de communication et de relation avec autrui, que l'on retrouve par exemple dans l'expression « une personne de commerce agréable ». Ce sens dont l'origine se perd dans la nuit des temps fait appel a une réalité ou les rapports humains et l'économie étaient conditionnés par la proximité géographique. Dans une acceptation plus moderne, le commerce désigne l'activité qui fait circuler les marchandises, par exemple avec le marché. Il couvre l'ensemble des transactions passées d'individus a individus, eux-memes représentant en nom propre ou d'entreprises, par l'appréciation de leur valeur d'échange et la réalisation de celle-ci. Le commerce dans l'actualité › Voir les actualités de cette année … 23 mai 2011 : L'économiste Xavier Gabaix reçoit le Prix du meilleur jeune économiste de France. avril 2011 : La prestigieuse American Economic Association vient de décerner la John Bates Clark Medal a Jonathan Levin. 9 février 2011 : Fusion entre la Bourse de Toronto et la Bourse de Londres. 26 septembre 2010 : Désireux de relancer les exportations des États-Unis, la Fed incite les investisseurs a anticiper une chute de la valeur du dollar pour soutenir une reprise vacillante. La conséquence logique d'une bataille entre les États-Unis, le Japon et bien sur la Chine : l'euro a repris les 10% de sa valeur (par rapport au dollar) perdus entre mai et juin 2010. 7 mai 2010 : L'euro a perdu plus de 10% de sa valeur (par rapport au dollar) au moment ou l'Europe et le Fonds monétaire international (FMI) s'engagent formellement a preter 110 milliards d'euros pour lutter contre la crise grecque. 28 avril 2010 : Angus Maddison, économiste-historien est mort. 26 avril 2010 : La prestigieuse American Economic Association vient de décerner, pour la premiere fois, a une non américaine, Esther Duflo la John Bates Clark Medal. 20 avril 2010: Économie de l'environnement : Les autorités européennes entendent profiter de la crise du nuage de cendres du volcan islandais Eyjafjöll pour centraliser davantage la gestion du trafic européen. L'idée d'un "ciel unique" a été lancée, en 1999, pour s'adapter au développement du trafic aérien. 10 mars 2010: Concurrence : Airbus, filiale d'EADS, risque d'etre contraint de renoncer a participer a un appel d'offres pour un méga-contrat d'avions ravitailleurs pour l'armée de l'air américaine apres le retrait lundi de son allié américain Northrop Grumman. Les deux groupes estiment que l'appel d'offres favorise leur concurrent américain Boeing, désormais seul en course. 23 février 2010: Le déficit public a représenté 5 % du produit intérieur brut (PIB) en 2009 en Italie, un chiffre sans commune mesure avec les 13 % observés en Grece, ni avec les pourcentages a deux chiffres affichés par l'Irlande, le Portugal et l'Espagne. 12 janvier 2010: France : greve a la raffinerie des Flandres suite au projet de fermeture annoncé par Total, qui perdure tout le mois. 19 janvier 2010: Kraft Foods achete Cadbury pour 11,9 milliards de livres sterling. 22 janvier 2010: France: Ordonnance créant l'Autorité de contrôle prudentiel (ACP) par fusion de la Commission bancaire et de l'Autorité de contrôle des assurances et des mutuelles (ACAM). 13 décembre 2009: Paul Samuelson, Prix Nobel 1970, l'un des économistes le plus influent a quitté le monde des vivants. Citation de commerce › Voir l'intégralité des citations … « La chose la plus importante en communication, c'est d'entendre ce qui n'est pas dit. » — Peter Drucker Quiz de commerce Comment nomme-t-on la structure de recherche et de négociation des achats d'une enseigne ? › Voir la réponse modifier Index général Commerce par pays Chambre de commerce en France · Commerce en France · Autres Commerce par pays Accord économique Traité de libre-échange · Accord de libre-échange nord-américain · Pays ACP · Association des nations de l'Asie du Sud-Est · ... Métiers du commerce Acheteur · Vendeur · Veille commerciale · Chef de produit · Chef de rayon · Autres Métiers Type de commerce Grand magasin · Restaurant · Débit de boisson · Autres types de commerce Commerce et management Marketing · Management de la distribution · Autres articles de management Arborescence complete du commerce modifier Le saviez-vous ? Lumiere sur … › La premiere fonction de la distribution est transactionnelle. Elle assure les fonctions de mise a disposition de biens, de services et de solutions au consommateur selon l'échéance, le lieu et la quantité voulus par lui au meilleur cout. › La deuxieme fonction de la distribution est relationnelle. Elle développe la confiance du consommateur a l'égard du point de vente et en particulier de son personnel. fidéliser le consommateur. › La troisieme fonction de la distribution est expérientielle. Il s'agit d'agir sur les états émotionnels dans un sens favorable a la vente. Valoriser l'acte d'achat du consommateur en lui permettant de vivre des expériences uniques dans le point de vente La société BP, anciennement nommée British Petroleum puis BPAmoco, est une compagnie britannique de recherche, d'extraction, de raffinage et de vente de pétrole fondée en 1909. Apres sa fusion avec Amoco, Atlantic Richfield (Arco) et Burmah Castrol, elle est devenue la plus grande société du Royaume-Uni et la troisieme compagnie pétroliere mondiale. La division BP de Londres est évaluée a environ 50 milliards USD (environ 39 milliards d'euros). Internationalement, BP est présente dans plus de 100 pays et emploie environ 10000 personnes. A la fois par responsabilité sociale et pour garantir sa pérennité, la société investit depuis quelques années dans l'énergie solaire. Le choix du slogan de la société BP, « Beyond Petroleum » (Au-dela du pétrole), serait du a l'imminence du pic pétrolier. Il peut également etre du a l'action du groupe d'actionnaires militants Sane BP (dont Greenpeace fait partie), qui propose des résolutions environnementales depuis 1999 a chaque assemblée générale. Lire l'article Autres articles sélectionnés Articles de qualité Le commerce en image Bons articles Articles n'ayant pas le statut officiel d'article de qualité : Grande distribution Grande distribution Marchandisage Marchandisage Autres Publicité modifier Articles ayant le statut officiel de bon article : Créteil Soleil - Noyelles (centre commercial) Articles n'ayant pas le statut officiel de bon article : Marketing Merchandising Packaging Marché Marché Autres Commercialisation des produits agricoles modifier Index thématique du commerce Techniques de vente Grande distribution Vente additionnelle · Vente directe · Vente en réseau · Vente privée · autres articles en Vente · Hard-discount · Hypermarché · Centrale d’achat · Supermarché · Points de vente · Supérette · autres articles... · Réseaux de distribution Commerce international Franchise · Concession · Route commerciale · Distribution (management) · autres articles... · Droit de douane · Importation · Exportation · Multinationale · Régime douanier · autres articles... · Organisation mondiale du commerce Commerce électronique GATT · Clause du traitement national · Centre du commerce international · Accord général sur le commerce des services · autres articles... · Monnaie électronique · Paynet · E-tourisme · Cybermarché · Point relais · Bricks and clicks · autres articles... · Commerce équitable École de commerce Économie et éthique · Tourisme équitable · Artisans du Monde · Plate-forme française pour le commerce équitable . autres articles... · Portail:Grandes écoles · École supérieure de commerce· École de commerce américaine· École de commerce espagnole· École de commerce indienne· autres articles... · Droit de la concurrence Consommation Abus de position dominante · Entente illicite · Discrimination par les prix · Concurrence déloyale · Politique de concurrence · autres articles... · Consumérisme· Surendettement· Comportement du consommateur· autres articles... · Il existe un Projet relatif au commerce. 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Kategorija: Ekonomski pojmovi Ekspor Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas Belum Diperiksa Ekonomi Ekonomi menurut kawasan [tampilkan] Kategori umum Ekonomi mikro · Ekonomi makro Sejarah pemikiran ekonomi Metodologi · Pendekatan heterodoks Bidang dan subbidang Behavioral · Budaya · Evolusi Pertumbuhan · Pengembangan · Sejarah Internasional · Sistem ekonomi Keuangan dan Ekonomi keuangan Masyarakat dan Ekonomi kesejahteraan Kesehatan · Buruh · Manajerial Bisnis Informasi · Informasi · Game theory Organisasi Industri · Hukum Pertanian · Sumber daya alam Lingkungan · Ekologis Kota · Pedesaan · Kawasan Peta ekonomi Teknik Matematika · Ekonometrika Eksperimental · Neraca nasional Daftar Jurnal · Publikasi Kategori · Topik · Ekonom Ideologi ekonomi [tampilkan] Perekonomian: Konsep dan Sejarah Portal Bisnis dan ekonomi Kotak ini: lihat • bicara • sunting Kegiatan pemuatan barang ekspor. Ekspor adalah proses transportasi barang atau komoditas dari suatu negara ke negara lain.[1] Proses ini seringkali digunakan oleh perusahaan dengan skala bisnis kecil sampai menengah sebagai strategi utama untuk bersaing di tingkat internasional.[2] Strategi ekspor digunakan karena risiko lebih rendah, modal lebih kecil dan lebih mudah bila dibandingkan dengan strategi lainnya. [2] Strategi lainnya misalnya franchise dan akuisisi. Daftar isi [sembunyikan] 1 Jenis 1.1 Ekspor langsung 1.2 Ekspor tidak langsung 2 Tahap-tahap 3 Komoditi ekspor Indonesia 4 Ekspor Indonesia dari tahun ke tahun 5 Kesalahan umum 6 Istilah-istilah ekspor 7 Referensi [sunting]Jenis Kegiatan ekspor terbagi menjadi 2, yaitu:[3] [sunting]Ekspor langsung Ekspor langsung adalah cara menjual barang atau jasa melalui perantara/ eksportir yang bertempat di negara lain atau negara tujuan ekspor.[3] Penjualan dilakukan melalui distributor dan perwakilan penjualan perusahaan.[3][4] Keuntungannya, produksi terpusat di negara asal dan kontrol terhadap distribusi lebih baik. Kelemahannya, biaya transportasi lebih tinggi untuk produk dalam skala besar dan adanya hambatan perdagangan serta proteksionisme.[3][5] [sunting]Ekspor tidak langsung Ekspor tidak langsung adalah teknik dimana barang dijual melalui perantara/eksportir negara asal kemudian dijual oleh perantara tersebut.[3] Melalui, perusahaan manajemen ekspor ( export management companies ) dan perusahaan pengekspor ( export trading companies ).[4] Kelebihannya, sumber daya produksi terkonsentrasi dan tidak perlu menangani ekspor secara langsung. Kelemahannya, kontrol terhadap distribusi kurang dan pengetahuan terhadap operasi di negara lain kurang.[5] Umumnya, industri jasa menggunakan ekspor langsung sedangkan industri manufaktur menggunakan keduanya.[3] [sunting]Tahap-tahap Dalam perencanaan ekspor perlu dilakukan berbagai persiapan, berikut ini 4 langkah persiapannya:[4] Identifikasi pasar yang potensial Penyesuaian antara kebutuhan pasar dengan kemampuan, SWOT analisis Melakukan Pertemuan, dengan eksportir, agen, dll Alokasi sumber daya. [sunting]Komoditi ekspor Indonesia Sepuluh komoditi ekspor utama Indonesia adalah Tekstil dan Produk Tekstil (TPT), produk hasil hutan, elektronik, karet dan produk karet, sawit dan produk sawit, otomotif, alas kaki, udang, kakao dan kopi.[6] Namun, pasar internasional semakin kompetitif sehingga sepuluh komoditas ekpor utama Indonesia terdiversifikasi.[6] Komoditas lainnya, yaitu makanan olahan, perhiasan, ikan dan produk ikan, kerajinan dan rempah-rempah, kulit dan produk kulit, peralatan medis, minyak atsiri, peralatan kantor dan tanaman obat. [6] [sunting]Ekspor Indonesia dari tahun ke tahun Ekspor Indonesia setahun Tahun Sumber [sunting]Kesalahan umum Ada beberapa kesalahan umum yang sering dilakukan oleh perusahaan yang baru melakukan ekspor, yaitu :[4] Tidak melakukan penyelidikan yang lengkap sebelum melakukan ekspor. Tidak melakukan konsultasi terlebih dahulu. [sunting]Istilah-istilah ekspor Berikut adalah istilah-istilah ekspor yang sering digunakan: [22] Airway bill Suatu kontrak mutlak yang dikeluarkan perusahaan angkutan udara. Bill of landing (B/L) Surat tanda terima barang yang dimuat di atas kapal dan merupakan bukti kepemilikan atas barang serta perjanjian pengangkutan barang melalui laut. Invoice Faktur atau nota yang berisi harga dan jumlah barang serta total harga. C&F (Cost and Freight) Seluruh biaya produksi dan pengapalannya masuk dalam harga barang. Clearence hak kapal untuk meninggalkan pelabuhan. Ijin berangkat kapal dari pelabuhan. Ijin mengeluarkan barang dari pabean. Consignee Nama dan alamat penerima barang atau pembelinya. F. O. B (free on the boat) Suatu kewajiban penjual hanya sebatas sampai pelabuhan pengirim Packing list Faktur atau nota yang berisi jumlah dan berat barang (berat bersih dan berat kotor) Comodity Barang yang merupakan hasil pertanian, namun saat ini disebut produk. Phytosanitary certificate Sebuah surat yang dikeluarkan oleh lembaga karantina hewan dan tumbuhan, Departemen Pertanian Republik Indonesia. Proses mendapatkannya melalui serangkaian prosedur dan uji laboratorium, agar tidak terjadi penyebaran penyakit antar negara maupun antar pulau di Indonesia (surat karantina antar pulau) Weight Berat kotor suatu barang yang menyangkut isi dan pembungkusnya. [sunting]Referensi ^ Amir.Ekspor-Impor.Jakarta:Pustaka Binaman Pesindo.1996. 1005717454172 15:44, 6 April 2010 (UTC) Ekonomi Ekonomi menurut kawasan [tampilkan] Kategori umum Ekonomi mikro · Ekonomi makro Sejarah pemikiran ekonomi Metodologi · Pendekatan heterodoks Bidang dan subbidang Behavioral · Budaya · Evolusi Pertumbuhan · Pengembangan · Sejarah Internasional · Sistem ekonomi Keuangan dan Ekonomi keuangan Masyarakat dan Ekonomi kesejahteraan Kesehatan · Buruh · Manajerial Bisnis Informasi · Informasi · Game theory Organisasi Industri · Hukum Pertanian · Sumber daya alam Lingkungan · Ekologis Kota · Pedesaan · Kawasan Peta ekonomi Teknik Matematika · Ekonometrika Eksperimental · Neraca nasional Daftar Jurnal · Publikasi Kategori · Topik · Ekonom Ideologi ekonomi [tampilkan] Perekonomian: Konsep dan Sejarah Portal Bisnis dan ekonomi Kotak ini: lihat • bicara • sunting Kategori: Perdagangan internasional Kategori:Perdagangan internasional Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas Wikimedia Commons memiliki kategori mengenai Perdagangan internasional Subkategori Kategori ini memiliki 4 subkategori berikut, dari total 4. B [+] Blok perdagangan (1) G [+] Globalisasi (1) I [×] Istilah perdagangan internasional (0) M [×] Mata uang emas digital (0) Halaman dalam kategori "Perdagangan internasional" Kategori ini memiliki 16 halaman, dari total 16. E Ekspor F Federasi Asosiasi Perdagangan Internasional H Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System I Incoterms International Chamber of Commerce K Keseimbangan kemampuan berbelanja M Merkantilisme N Neraca pembayaran Nilai tukar O Organisasi antarpemerintah Organisasi untuk Kerjasama dan Pengembangan Ekonomi P Perdagangan dengan Nanban P samb. Perjanjian Plaza S Sakoku T Tarif Z Zona perdagangan bebas Kategori: Hubungan internasional | Hukum internasional | Perdagangan | Bisnis | Ekonomi internasional Esportazione Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Disambiguazione – Se stai cercando altri significati, vedi Esportazione (disambigua). Nel campo del commercio l'esportazione e la vendita in un'altra Nazione di beni e servizi. Questo tipo di operazione e largamente caldeggiata dai vari governi per fare da contraltare alle importazioni, di cui ogni Nazione ha necessita, cercando il piu possibile di avere una Bilancia dei conti con l'estero positiva. L'attivita di esportazione, per quanto agevolata, e regolata da apposite leggi fiscali e doganali ed e sottoposta a controllo, in Italia, da parte del Ministero del Commercio Internazionale. Molto spesso, in caso di esportazione di particolari materiali, ha importanza anche il parere positivo del Ministero degli Affari Esteri della Repubblica Italiana, unico che puo autorizzare, ad esempio, le esportazioni di materiali ad alta tecnologia. Negli anni scorsi, per aiutare i piccoli imprenditori a far conoscere il piu possibile anche all'estero il Made in Italy e stato fondato un Ente apposito, l'ICE (acronimo di Istituto nazionale per il Commercio Estero). E grazie al coordinamento fornito da questo ente che sono state organizzati i primi Padiglioni Italiani e le prime partecipazioni alle Fiere internazionali, in modo che anche prodotti e marchi italiani medio-piccoli potessero farsi conoscere al di fuori dei confini nazionali. Oltre che la conoscenza delle norme giuridiche del proprio Paese, l'azienda che vuole iniziare ad esportare i propri prodotti, deve conoscere anche i regolamenti sovrannazionali in uso, ad esempio i termini di resa con cui le merci possono essere vendute, codificati nell'INCOTERMS. Altrettanta importanza ha la conoscenza dei regolamenti e dei costumi in vigore nel Paese destinatario, nonché gli eventuali documenti e certificati da fornire in allegato alla merce. Infatti l'esportatore si trovera spesso nella necessita di richiedere Certificati di Origine, Visti consolari, Certificati fitopatologici ed altri documenti simili. Naturalmente un altro elemento importante da tenere in considerazione nell'effettuare un'esportazione e l'avere una garanzia sul fatto che i materiali spediti, magari in altri continenti, saranno regolarmente pagati; in questo sono le banche che possono intervenire con varie forme di aiuto, sia di finanziamento preventivo che di garanzia sui pagamenti (solitamente fornite tramite fidejussioni e lettere di credito). Un'altra categoria professionale su cui l'esportatore puo contare per portare a buon fine la fornitura di proprie merci e quella dello spedizioniere, cioe l'incaricato di organizzare materialmente il trasferimento di quanto venduto. [modifica] Ministero del Commercio Internazionale Il governo Prodi II ha ripristinato il Ministero del Commercio Estero, separandolo dal Ministero delle Attivita Produttive. Affidato ad Emma Bonino il ministero ha preso la denominazione di Ministero del Commercio Internazionale. [modifica] Voci correlate Importazione Lista di stati per valore delle esportazioni [modifica] Collegamenti esterni Ministero del Commercio Internazionale Ministero degli Affari Esteri Istituto nazionale per il Commercio Estero - I.C.E. Categoria: Commercio internazionale Categoria:Commercio internazionale Wikimedia Commons contiene file multimediali su Commercio internazionale Sottocategorie Questa categoria contiene un'unica sottocategoria, indicata di seguito. C [+] Commercio equo solidale (1 C, 28 P) Pagine nella categoria "Commercio internazionale" Questa categoria contiene le 46 pagine indicate di seguito, su un totale di 46. * Carta dei diritti e dei doveri economici degli stati A Accordo commerciale American Chamber of Commerce in Italy Area di commercio preferenziale Area di libero scambio Area di libero scambio dell'ASEAN B Blocco commerciale continentale C Canada-USA Free Trade Agreement Centro consultivo sul diritto dell'OMC Commercio romano con l'India Condizione di Marshall-Lerner Convenzione sulla Vendita Internazionale di beni Credito all'esportazione D Dazio (economia) Dazio ottimo Diritti speciali di prelievo D cont. Dumping E Esportazione F Federazione delle Associazioni del Commercio Internazionale Frontiera delle possibilita produttive G GECF General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GlobalTrade.net H Horeca I Importazione Integrazione economica Integrazione economica completa J JETRO K Kimberley Process L Libero scambio M Mercato unico Mercosur N Norme ed Usi Uniformi North American Free Trade Agreement O Organizzazione Mondiale del Commercio Organo di conciliazione Origine preferenziale P Porto franco (economia) S Sysmin T Tariffa doganale Teorema di Rybczynski Trattato bilaterale per gli investimenti U Unione doganale Unione economica e monetaria Z Zona di libero scambio delle Americhe Zona extradoganale Categoria: Economia internazionale Entra / RegistratiCategoriaDiscussioneLeggiModificaVisualizza cronologia Ultima modifica per la pagina: 22:23, 3 feb 2011. Il testo e disponibile secondo la licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione-Condividi allo stesso modo; possono applicarsi condizioni ulteriori. Vedi le condizioni d'uso per i dettagli. Wikipedia® e un marchio registrato della Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. Vývoz z Wikipédie, slobodnej encyklopédie Vývoz alebo export je: a) èinnos, ktorej cie¾om je predaj statkov (tovarov alebo služieb a podobne) do zahranièia b) v národnom úètovníctve a makroekonómii: celkový objem statkov (tovarov alebo služieb), ktorý urèité národné hospodárstvo (štát) dodalo za urèitý èas do zahranièia [upravi]Pozri aj Dovoz Kategória: Ekonómia a ekonomika Exportaçao Origem: Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre. Exportaçao é a saída de bens, produtos e serviços além das fronteiras do país de origem. Esta operaçao pode envolver pagamento (cobertura cambial), como venda de produtos, ou nao, como nas doaçoes. Índice [esconder] 1 Tipos 1.1 Exportaçao Indireta 1.2 Exportaçao Direta 2 Roteiro básico para exportar produtos 3 Estatísticas Relacionadas 4 Ligaçoes externas [editar]Tipos Pre-shipment inspection, also called preshipment inspection or PSI, is an important and reliable quality control method for checking goods' quality while clients buy from the suppliers. After ordering a number of articles, the buyer lets a third party control the ordered goods before they are dispatched to him. Normally an independent inspection company is assigned with the task of the PSI, as it is in the interest of the buyer that somebody not connected with the deal in any way verifies the amount and quality. This way the buyer makes sure, he gets the goods he paid for. Although increasing numbers of clients would like to collect suppliers' information from the Internet, this contains high risks because it is not a face-to-face transaction, and Internet phishing and fraud can corrupt it. Pre-shipment inspection can greatly avoid this risk and ensure clients get quality products from suppliers. The pre-shipment inspection is normally agreed between a buyer, a supplier, and a bank, and it can be used to initiate payment for a letter of credit. A PSI can be performed at different stages: Checking the total amount of goods and packing Controlling the quality and/or consistency of goods Verifying compliance with the standards of the destination country (e.g. ASME or CE mark) The first stage is often performed by the transport company, but for the latter two stages a proper inspection company is needed. Similarly, if between the buyer and seller money transfer via a letter of credit is agreed upon, it is necessary to assign a reputable inspection company. In case of the letter of credit, after inspection of the goods, an inspection certificate is sent to the bank issuing the letter of credit and the buyer, initiating the money transfer. Inspection companies are classified in two classes: - Free-market companies: These are privately owned companies, which sell their services to the market. Danger with these might be, especially if it is a smaller company, that they might be paid as well by the manufacturer, thus working in his interest. - State owned inspection companies: Only very few companies operating on the market are state-owned or partly state-owned. The shareholding of governmental institutions guarantees the independence and objectivity. A higher form of the PSI is called expediting, in this the dates of delivery and the production are controlled as well. Some countries, like Botswana, require PSIs for all goods entering the country in order to fight corruption. In these cases the PSI must be performed by the company designated by the country. [editar]Exportaçao Indireta A exportaçao pode ser caracterizada como 'direta' e 'indireta'. A exportaçao direta ocorre quando a própria empresa faz a exportaçao, sem a utilizaçao de intermediários no processo de introduçao do produto no mercado-alvo. Exportaçao indireta trata-se de uma alternativa disponível para empresas que desejam iniciar seu processo de internacionalizaçao, porém nao possuem experiencia suficiente para faze-lo de forma independente. Esta forma de provimento do mercado internacional é adotada normalmente por companhias de pequeno ou médio porte, e pode ocorrer através de: uma comercial exportadora; uma "trading company": sociedade anônima, com capital mínimo integralizado de 1 milhao de Reais, cujo papel é nao só comprar produtos para exportar, mas assessorar uma empresa que deseja exportar seus produtos, mediante pagamento de comissao; uma cooperativa (setor rural); um consórcio de exportaçao: espécie de cooperativa que pressupoe a criaçao de uma marca sob a qual o produto será comercializado no(s) mercado(s)-alvo, nao sendo necessário a criaçao de uma nova personalidade jurídica.As condiçoes sao oficializadas em uma reuniao, cuja ata deve ser registrada em cartório. Os custos sao rateados entre as empresas participantes. [editar]Exportaçao Direta A exportaçao direta consiste na operaçao em que o produto exportado é faturado diretamente pelo próprio produtor ao importador. Este tipo de exportaçao exige que a empresa possua conhecimento relativo ao imenso processo de exportaçao, em toda a sua linha de expansao. [editar]Roteiro básico para exportar produtos Identificar possíveis compradores no mercado externo; Enquadrar a exportaçao as normas nacionais e internacionais; Registrar e credenciar a sua empresa como exportadora junto ao DECEX/SECEX e Secretaria da Receita Federal; Contatar o possível comprador e apresentar a empresa e o produto; Preparar o preço FOB ou FCA como básico (ou pelo INCOTERM que o importador solicitar); Definir condiçoes de preço, forma de pagamento, entrega, embalagem, etc; Emitir e enviar a fatura Pro Forma para o importador analisar e confirmar negócio; Receber a formalizaçao do negócio [pedido de compra (Purchase Order)] por parte do importador; Registrar a Exportaçao no SISCOMEX (Sistema Integrado de Comércio Exterior); Produçao da mercadoria para entregar no prazo; Contratar empresa para o transporte internacional; Efetuar ou contratar despachante aduaneiro para cumprir os transmites de despacho; Emitir documentos fiscais, comerciais e financeiros; Fechar o cambio de exportaçao com o banco autorizador (Banco Negociador); Acompanhar a chegada da mercadoria no destino; Receber o pagamento através do Banco Negociador no Brasil. [editar]Estatísticas Relacionadas Aprendendo a Exportar - Site do Governo Federal Brasileiro Página de Comércio Exterior no site do Ministério Desenvolvimento, Indústria e Comércio Receita Federal Apex-Brasil (Agencia Brasileira de Promoçao de Exportaçoes e Investimento) Categoria: Economia internacional Eksport Eksport (z ³ac. ex "poza" + portare "nie¶æ") - wywóz za granicê dóbr, które zosta³y wytworzone w danym kraju. Dla krajów nale¿±cych do Unii Europejskiej eksport dotyczy sprzeda¿y towarów lub us³ug poza UE. Sprzeda¿ towarów w obrêbie pañstw nale¿±cych do Unii Europejskiej to tak zwana sprzeda¿ wewn±trzwspólnotowa a nie eksport. Eksport towarów w Polsce w rozumieniu ustawy o podatku od towarów i us³ug: Eksport towarów – potwierdzony przez urz±d celny wyj¶cia wywóz towarów z terytorium Polski poza terytorium Wspólnoty, je¿eli bêdzie on dokonywany przez: dostawcê lub w jego imieniu, nabywcê maj±cego siedzibê poza terytorium Polski lub w jego imieniu. O eksporcie towarów mo¿na mówiæ wtedy, gdy spe³nione bêd± ³±cznie 3 warunki: wywóz musi byæ potwierdzony przez urz±d celny wyj¶cia (urz±d celny graniczny terytorium celnego Wspólnoty Europejskiej). Nie jest wiêc w rozumieniu ustawy o podatku od towarów i us³ug np. nielegalne wywiezienie towaru z terytorium UE, nie jest równie¿ wystarczaj±ce posiadanie przez podatnika dokumentu odprawy celnej potwierdzaj±cego przez wewnêtrzny urz±d celny (znajduj±cy siê na terytorium Wspólnoty Europejskiej); wywóz musi nast±piæ poza terytorium Wspólnoty Europejskiej, co oznacza ¿e nie wystarczy go dokonaæ poza granice Polski, z wyj±tkiem tej czê¶ci granicy l±dowej, która stanowi granicê celn± Wspólnoty Europejskiej, b±d¼ granice morskie i powietrzne; wywóz musi byæ dokonany w ramach realizacji nastêpuj±cych czynno¶ci: odp³atnej dostawy towarów, b±d¼ czynno¶ci z ni± zrównanych (np. przekazanie towaru na cele osobiste podatnika); wywóz dokonany na innej podstawie prawnej, np. umowy u¿yczenia lub bêd±cy wy³±cznie czynno¶ci± faktyczn± nie jest eksportem w rozumieniu ustawy. Zgodnie z ustaw± o podatku VAT eksporterowi przys³uguje prawo do zastosowania zerowej stawki VAT. Eksport bezpo¶redni – oznacza, ¿e wywóz towarów poza granice Polski i UE dokonywany jest bezpo¶rednio przez eksportera b±d¼ osobê dzia³aj±c± w jego imieniu, w zwi±zku z czym dokumenty eksportowe wystawiane s± na eksportera. Eksport po¶redni – oznacza, ¿e towary wydawane s± zagranicznemu odbiorcy w kraju dostawcy (np. w Polsce) a ich wywóz poza granice RP i WE spoczywa ju¿ na nabywcy b±d¼ osobie dzia³aj±cej w jego imieniu. Dokumenty kontraktowe wystawiane s± wówczas na zagranicznego kontrahenta. W takim przypadku krajowy eksporter mo¿e zastosowaæ 0% stawkê VAT, o ile zagraniczny kontrahent dostarczy mu kopie dokumentów eksportowych (faktury handlowej, specyfikacji towarowej, dokumentów transportowych z piecz±tk± urzêdu celnego wyj¶cia, kopiê dokumentu SAD - Jednolitego Dokumentu Administracyjnego - z piecz±tk± urzêdu celnego wyj¶cia, stwierdzaj±cego, ¿e towar opu¶ci³ terytorium celne Wspólnoty Europejskiej). Zobacz te¿[edytuj] Przegl±d zagadnieñ z zakresu ekonomii Import Eksport wewnêtrzny Reeksport Lista krajów wg wielko¶ci eksportu Kategorie: Handel miêdzynarodowy • Logistyka Stary uk³ad stronLogowanie i rejestracjaArtyku³DyskusjaCzytajEdytujHistoria i autorzy Tê stronê ostatnio zmodyfikowano 02:26, 2 lut 2011. Tekst udostêpniany na licencji Creative Commons: uznanie autorstwa, na tych samych warunkach, z mo¿liwo¶ci± obowi±zywania dodatkowych ograniczeñ. Zobacz szczegó³o Eksport Eksport (av latin «bere ut, fore ut») er utforsel og sal av varer og tenester til utlandet. Det er det motsette av import, og verkar positivt inn pa bruttonasjonalproduktet. Ein eksportor er ein person, eit firma eller ein organisasjon som driv eksporthandel. Sja og [endre] internasjonal handel Denne okonomiartikkelen er ei spire. Du kan hjelpe Nynorsk Wikipedia gjennom a utvide han. Internasjonal handel Sja og handel. Internasjonal handel, i okonomi ofte rett og slett kalla handel, er utveksling av varer og tenester pa tvers av landegrensene. A selje varer og tenester til utlandet blir kalla eksport, a kjope fra utlandet blir kalla import. Handel er eit politikkomrade som vekkjer mykje strid. Dei fleste meiner at land skal involvere seg i handel, striden star om i kor stor grad. Til domes er det fa som gar inn for at Noreg skal bli sjolvforsynt med bilar eller bananar. Eit av dei storste stridsomrada er handel med typar av matvarer eit land er i stand til a produsere sjolv. Ogsa innan okonomisk teori er det noko debatt om kva handel som er gunstig for velferden til eit land. Mange okonomar argumenterer likevel for frihandel. Handel blir regulert gjennom ulike typar handelsbarrierar, som til domes toll og importkvoter. Den storste og best kjende organisasjonen som tek for seg internasjonal handel, er Verdsorganisasjonen for handel (WTO). Innhaldsliste [goym] 1 Historie 2 Handelsteori 2.1 Smith og Ricardo 2.2 Ricardo-Viner 2.3 Heckscher-Ohlin 2.4 Ny handelsteori 2.5 Andre teoriar 3 Handelssamarbeid 4 Handelsbarrierar 5 Kjelder 6 Sja og Historie [endre] Handel med kopar og tinn for produksjon av bronse var lenge viktig. Ikkje berre i bronsealderen, men og seinare for jern vart vanleg. (Herskarar kunne i naudstilfelle eller av sadistiske innfall erstatte tinnet med arsenikk, men dette gav mannefall i fabrikken og gjekk kraftig ut over arbeidsstyrken.) Fonikarane var eit nettverk av bystatar i oldtida. Det er kjendt at dei handla rav (harpiks og kvae) ifra ein koloni i Norden, i bytte med bronseprodukt ifra Middelhavet. I romartida var Egypt rekna for kornkammeret i det romerske imperiet. Spesialskip eksisterte for a frakte kornet, store nok til a minne om var tids oljetankerar og som kunne ta fleire hundretals menneskje pa dekket som ekstra frakt. Kinesisk silke har blitt eksportert til Europa sidan dei greske bystatane si tid. Rom hadde lenge problem med handelsunderskot til Kina. Dette bidrog til utholinga av den romerske mynteininga, der keisarane fekk spedd ut det verdifulle metallet. India hadde lenge eit overtak i internasjonal handel, pa grunn av dei mange (og store) jordbruksavlingane i lopet av eit ar. Tilgang pa billeg mat gjorde arbeidskraft billegare og dei indiske statane kunne eksportere tekstilprodukt som kunne utkonkurrere pa pris. Dette fekk t.d. Storbritannia til a sette opp tollmurar for a beskytte sin eigen okonomi. Til sist kunne Storbritannia igjennom industrialisering produsere klede billegare enn India, og vart no ein motstandar av proteksjonisme pa handel med klede. Oppdaginga av Amerika skulle komme til a revolusjonere handelsmonsteret i Atlanterhavet og Stillehavet. Trekanthandelen i Atlanterhavet oppstod, med industrivarer og vapen til Afrika, slavar ifra Afrika til koloniane og forskjellige produkt herifra til Europa. Tobakk, kakao, sukker og meir vart eksportert fra koloniane til Europa. Solv vart frakta direkte ifra Amerika til Kina, der den kinesiske solvstandarden skapte eit umetteleg behov etter dette metallet. Vi veit mindre om handelsmonsteret i Amerika for europeisk inntog, ettersom sa mange doydde av europeiske sjukdommar. Etter dei forste europeiske landgongane pa kontinentet, spreidde sjukdomar som koppar og influensa fortare enn nokon europear. Afrika sor for Sahara var lenge noko isolert ifra det euroasiatiske handelsnettverka. Malaria og tropiske sjukdomar avgrensa kor mykje kontakt ein kunne oppna (og skulle inspirere til H.G. Well's War of the Worlds). Saharaorkenen i seg sjolv skapte isolasjon, pa tross av at handelsruter eksisterte igjennom den. Handelsteori [endre] Teorien for internasjonal handel har roter fleire hundrear tilbake. Det finst mange og varierte teoriar for a forklare og evaluere effektane av handel. Smith og Ricardo [endre] Blant dei tidlegaste bidraga finn vi Adam Smith og David Ricardo sine innsikter om internasjonal spesialisering. Ricardo viste at dersom land utnyttar dei komparative fordelane sine, det vil seie spesialiserer seg i produksjon av dei goda dei kan produsere effektivt relativt til andre land (ikkje absolutt), vil dette auke denne totale produksjonen i verda. Ved deretter a utveksle desse goda, vil alle landa kunna forbruke meir enn dei gjorde i autarki (som lukka okonomi). At eit land tener pa handel, betyr derfor ikkje at eit anna tapar - det er mogleg for alle land a tene pa handel samtidig. Ricardo-Viner [endre] I dei enkle modellane til Smith og Ricardo var det berre éin type produksjonsfaktor, arbeidskraft, bruka i alle (begge) varer. Modellen med spesifikke faktorar, ofte kalla Ricardo-Viner, tok i staden utgangspunkt i at kvar vare vart produsert med to produksjonsfaktorar. Éin av desse var spesifikk for varen, det vil seie at han vart bruka berre i akkurat den varen. Ved a ga ut fra at ikkje alle agentane eigde same del av kvar faktor, fann ein at det kunne oppsta bade vinnarar og taparar innad i kvart enkelt land ved a begynne a handle med andre land. Det var likevel teoretisk mogleg a omfordele inntekt i landet pa ein slik mate at alle tente pa det. Heckscher-Ohlin [endre] Heckscher-Ohlin er kanskje den aller best kjende modellen for handel. Fokuset er pa ulik faktortilgang i ulike land. Til domes kan eit land ha relativt mykje arbeidskraft og eit anna relativt mykje kapital. Fram til 1970-talet meinte ein at denne teorien kunne forklare det aller meste av den handelen ein sag i verda. Modellen viste at eit land ville eksportere ein type vare og importere ein annan type, og at desse varetypane ville ha ulikt faktorinnhald, altsa at ei vare brukar mykje av ein faktor og ei anna mykje av ein annan faktor. Etter kvart som handelsstatistikk vart tilgjengeleg, viste det seg likevel at mykje av handelen foregjekk med variantar av like typar varer. Heckscher-Ohlin blir i dag rekna som best eigna til a forklare Nord-Sor-handel. Handelsmonsteret til Noreg kan likevel passe bra inn i teorien, sidan mykje av eksporten var er knyta til ravarer som olje og fisk. Ny handelsteori [endre] Det som ofte er kalla ny handelsteori, studerer naringsintern handel. Dette er handel med like typar varer, til domes eksport av ein type bil og import av ein annan. Svart mykje av handelen mellom i-land er slik naringsintern handel. Dette blir forklart ved hjelp av imperfekt konkurranse og/eller skalafordelar. Nokre viktige tidlege bidrag i denne teorien kom fra James A. Brander og Paul Krugman. Krugman fokuserte pa monopolistisk konkurranse, og det er denne greina av ny handelsteori som har vorte mest popular. Andre teoriar [endre] Andre handelsteoriar er ny okonomisk geografi og sakalla ny ny handelsteori. Gravitasjonsmodellen er hyppig brukt i empiriske analysar. Teoriar for multinasjonale foretak har og etter kvart vorte eit viktig supplement til handelsteori. Handelssamarbeid [endre] Land kan innga handelsavtalar med kvarandre. Meir omfattande typar samarbeid: Eit frihandelsomrade er eit samarbeid mellom fleire land, der medlemslanda har fjerna restriksjonane pa varer produsert i dei andre landa i samarbeidet. Dette inneber mellom anna at det ikkje er toll pa handel mellom landa. Landa treng ikkje a ha same tollsatsar pa handel med land utanfor frihandelsomradet. Eit dome pa eit slikt samarbeid er EFTA, som Noreg er med i. Ein tollunion er ein type handelssamarbeid som er meir omfattande enn frihandelsomrade. I tillegg til a fjerne restriksjonar pa handel mellom landa, har landa felles tollsatsar pa varer fra tredjeland. EU-landa har ein slik tollunion. Handelsbarrierar [endre] Regulering av handel kan ta mange former, til domes: Toll Importkvote Minstepris Pristak Frivillig eksportrestriksjon Ofte blir ulike typar handelsbarrierar kombinert for ein og same varen. Kjelder [endre] Forelesingar i Trade Theory and Policy, Richard Baldwin, HEI Geneve, varen 2006. Sja og [endre] Verdshandelsorganisasjonen Kategori: Okonomi Lag brukarkonto / logg innArtikkelDiskusjonLesEndreSja historikken Sida vart sist endra 1. juli 2011 kl. 18:45. Innhaldet er tilgjengeleg under Creative Commons Attribution/Share-alike License; ytterlegare vilkar kan gjelda. Sja Vilkar for detaljar. Eksport Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Eksport merujuk kepada proses barang atau komoditi yang dijual atau diangkut dari satu negara ke negara lain secara sah, terutamanya untuk perdagangan. Eksport merupakan bahagian penting dalam perdagangan antarabangsa. Lawan kepada eksport adalah import. Eksports Vikipedijas raksts Ar eksportu ekonomika saprot viena vai vairakas valstis saražotu preèu pardošanu citas valstis. Tas pats attiecas ari uz pakalpojumiem. Eksports, tapat ka imports, ir svarigakie starptautiskas tirdzniecibas aspekti. Valstis parasti cenšas atbalstit savu uznemumu eksporta aktivitates, izstradajot un istenojot eksporta politiku, eksporta programmas, planus un pasakumus. Latvija eksporta veicinašana ir Ekonomikas ministrijas kompetence. Tas istenota eksporta atbalsta politika ietver arejo ekonomisko parstavniecibu veidošanu un uzturešanu, eksporta kreditu garantešanu, atbalsta sniegšanu arejo tirgu apgušana u.c. pasakumus. [1] Virkne valstu eksporta atbalstam tiek veidotas eksporta-importa bankas, piemeram, ASV [2], Indija [3], Ungarija [4], Kina [5] u.c. Skatit ari [izmainit šo sadalu] Eksportas Eksportas – istatymais reglamentuotas prekiu ir paslaugu išvežimas iš vienos valstybes i kit±, dažniausiai jas ir parduodant. Priklausomai nuo konteksto, terminas gali reikšti eksporto proces± arba proceso apimtis. Eksportui priešingas terminas yra importas, prekiu ir paslaugu ivežimas i valstybê. Eksportas yra svarbi tarptautines prekybos dalis. Eksporto prekes ir paslaugos paprastai tiekiamos valstybes (vietiniu) gamintoju/tiekeju, o galutinis ju vartotojas yra užsienio valstybes gyventojai ar organizacijos. Prekybinis eksportas paprastai reglamentuojamas eksportuojanèios valstybes ir valstybes gavejos muito istatymu. Eksporto procedur± ir formalumus muitineje Europos S±jungoje reglamentuoja Bendrijos muitines kodeksas. [taisyti]Taip pat skaitykit Muitas Tranzitas Ihracat Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi Kontrol edilmemiº Ihracat bir malin yabanci ülkelere döviz karºiligi yapilan satiºidir. Bir malin uluslararasi pazarda rekabet gücü döviz kuruyla da dogrudan ilgilidir. Döviz kurunun düºmesi, yani yerli paranin yabanci para karºisinda deger kazanmasi, söz konusu mali uluslararasi pazarda daha pahali hale getireceginden malin rekabet gücünü azaltir. Türkiye'de ihracat [degiºtir] Ürünün ihracata yönelik biçimde kaliteli ve uluslararasi standartlara ve piyasa ºartlarina uygun biçimde üretilmesinden, yurtdiºinda pazarlanmasi, reklam ve tanitiminin yapilmasi, diº satiminin gerçekleºtirilmesi, en uygun ambalaj ve nakliye biçiminin seçilmesi, ihracatçinin ülkesindeki diº ticaret mevzuatini bilerek zamaninda gerekli iºlemleri tamamlamasi ve ürünün istenilen yere zamaninda teslimine kadar uzanan çeºitli aºamalardan geçerek gerçekleºir. Ihracatçi gerçek usulde vergi mükellefi olup, bulundugu ildeki Ticaret ve Sanayi Odalarina kayitli ve diger kanunlara göre ihracat yapmasina bir engel bulunmayan gerçek veya tüzel kiºi, tacirdir. Ihracat yapan firma ihracat yapacagi ülke için hazirlamiº oldugu formu Odalardan temin ederek doldurur. Yurt diºina gidecek malzemenin faturasini da ekleyerek bir dilekçe ile ilgili Odaya baºvurur ve gerekli incelemeden sonra belgeler tasdik edilir. Ihracatçi Birliklerinin kapsamina giren mallari ihraç edecek olan firmalarin, Birliklere üye olmalari gerekmektedir. Birlik üyelik belgesine sahip olmadan bu mallarin ihraci yapilamaz. Ayrica bakiniz [degiºtir] Ithalat Ihracata göre ülkeler siralamasi Kategoriler: Ticaret | Ekonomi | Ihracatçi birlikleri Oturum aç / yeni hesap oluºturMaddeTartiºmaOkuDegiºtirGeçmiºi gör sayfa son olarak 12:40, 17 Nisan 2011 tarihinde güncellenmiºtir. Ithalat Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi Kontrol edilmemiº Ithalat, yurtdiºinda üretilmiº mallarin, ülkedeki alicilar tarafindan satin alinmasidir. Diºalim da denir. Ihracatin karºitidir ve onunla birlikte bir ülkenin diº ticaret dengesini oluºturur. Ithalat, özel ya da tüzel kiºilerce, kamu iktisadi kuruluºlari ya da devlet tarafindan dogrudan yapilabilir. Ayrica bakiniz [degiºtir] Ekonomi Vikipedi, özgür ansiklopedi Baºligin diger anlamlari için Ekonomi (anlam ayrimi) sayfasina bakiniz. Bu sayfada devam eden bir çaliºma vardir. Yardim etmek istiyorsaniz ya da çaliºma yarida kalmiºsa, çaliºmaya katilan kiºilerle iletiºime geçebilirsiniz. Bu sayfada son 7 gün içerisinde degiºiklik yapilmadigi gözleniyorsa, bu ºablon sayfadan kaldirilabilir. Bu sayfa üzerindeki en son degiºiklik, 47 saat önce Seksen iki yüz kirk beº (katkilar| kayitlar) tarafindan gerçekleºtirildi. Ekonomi veya iktisat, üretim, ticaret, dagitim ve tüketimden oluºan insan aktivitesidir. Ekonomi belli bir bölge içindeki ekonomik sistemden oluºur. Bu sistem o bölgedeki iºgücünü, sermayeyi, dogal kaynaklari; üretim, ticaret ile dagitimda rol alan ekonomik kuruluºlari ve o bölgedeki mal ile hizmetlerin tüketimini içerir. Bir ekonomi teknolojik evrim, tarih ve sosyal organizasyon ile cografya, dogal kaynaklar, gelir ve ekoloji gibi ana faktörlerin birleºmesiyle oluºur. Tüm meslekler, kuruluºlar veya ekonomik faaliyetler ekonomiye katkida bulunur. Tüketim, tasarruf ve yatirim ekonominin çekirdek ögelerindendir ve pazarin dengesini belirler. Ekonominin birincil, ikincil ve üçüncül olmak üzere üç sektörü mevcuttur. Tarih boyunca toplumlar karmaºiklaºtikça ekonomi de geliºmiºtir. Sümerler mal paraya dayanan büyük ölçekte bir ekonomi oluºtururken, günümüzdeki anlamiyla ilk ekonomiyi Babilliler ve komºu ºehir devletleri kurmuºtur.[1] export Export är utförsel och försäljning av varor utanför ett lands gränser. Exporten paverkar bruttonationalprodukten positivt.

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Special Procedures - All companies which seek to gain this certificate have to pass our special procedures. These have been proven to be very successful throughout the years. What a few people do not realise is that GSE authorization certificates are strictly selected and they are not given out to just any company that applied. There are strict procedures in which each your company has to be put through, they must also be audited and verified by the GSE Authorization. This will provide a competitive service in comparison to other businesses, and provide more potential for your business to gain more sales.

Risk and Opportunity – The GSE Authorization system is a widely recognized standard for identifying businesses among thousands of companies, marketplaces and regulatory entities. GSE Authorization becomes a very recognizable method of verification before starting business activity with your supplier. Companies worldwide use the GSE Authorization to link information about suppliers, customers and trading partners, providing a more complete picture of the risk and opportunity in their business relationships.

What supplier should I choose - Our current figures and feedback proves that we are one of the most effective projects in the industry. With no complaints from any buyers, we pride ourselves in providing you a quality service and making sure your company is trustworthy. We also pride ourselves on only picking the best traders, and therefore we provide people you are planning on trading with a guarantee of the reliability of your company.

Competent Companies - Provision of GSE Authorization by the supplier before the start of business should be one of the most important things, if you want to import from competent and reliable companies. All firms with GSE Authorization are checked and audited using our procedures, so that you can easily import from the best companies on the market. | support@gseauthorization.com
Serious Buyers. Serious Importers. If you are new to the business front and you are looking for a trustworthy company that you wish to trade with then it is a good idea to check if they have GSE Authorization as you will be guaranteed a quality service. If you are new to the idea of GSE Authorization then you will find out that it is a very competitive and challenging achievement as your company must be able to pass certain procedures otherwise the certificate will not be given, but once you gain this certificate sales rise on average 20-50%, all of this is due to trust and the stamp of approval and quality, this means a lot in the business world and does gain you a lot more revenue in the long term.

GSE Pre-Application Report If you are not sure whether you qualify to apply for GSE Authorization, you can order the Pre-Application Report. During 3 working days, we will give the detailed information about your qualifications to GSE Authorization. Click here to order Pre-Application Report


| Contact: support@gseauthorization.com
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Where To Apply? - To learn more about your nearest office where you can get a GSE Authorization certificate, contact our Support Department at: support@gseauthorization.com

How To Apply? - To learn more about the procedures and how to apply for a GSE Authorization certificate, contact our Application Processing Department at: support@gseauthorization.com

Become A Buyer - To learn more about how to become a buyer of companies with GSE Authorization, contact us at: buyers@gseauthorization.com

Check The GSE Authorization Certificates - It is important to be sure that you cooperate with the right supplier. To check whether your supplier has obtained a GSE Authorization certificate, contact us at: check@gseauthorization.com

To Become Our Partner/Representatives a GSE Authorization certificate is the most reliable certification on the market (0% of all GSE Certificied companies have been marked as unreliable companies, which means that all of the companies with a GSE Authorization certificate are reliable.) To become our Partner/Representative, contact us at: cooperation@gseauthorization.com

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